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From Apple He to Apple IIgs 
Performance Update 


If you discover physical defects in 
the manuals distributed with an 
Apple product or in the media on 
which a software product is distrib- 
uted, Apple will replace the media 
or manuals at no charge to you, 
provided you return the item to be 
replaced with proof of purchase to 
Apple or an authorized Apple dealer 
during the 90-day period after you 
purchased the software, In additi 
Apple will replace damaged soft- 
ware media and manuals for as long 
as the software product is inclu 
in Apple's Media Exchange 
Program, While not an upgrade or 
update method, this program offers 
additional protection for up to two 
years or more from the date of your 
original purchase. See your autho- 
rized Apple dealer for program 
coverage and details. In son 
countries the replacement p> 
may be different; check with your 
authorized Apple dea l ■ 


Even though Apple has tested the 
software and reviewed the docu- 



WARE OR lis Iwk s Ml MATION, 
even if advised of the possibility of 
h damages In particular, Apple 
shall have no liability for any pro- 
grams or data stored in or u 
Apple products, Including the costs 

covering such programs or 


■ LD I • ' aler, agei 

employee is authorized to make any 
modification, extension, or addition 

ris warranty. 

es do not allow the ex- 
clusion or limitation of implied 
wananties or liability for incidental 
or consequential damages, so the 
above limitation or exclusion may 
not apply to you. This war" 
gives you specific legal rights, and 
you may also have other rights 
which vary from stale to state. 


This equipment has been certified to 
comply with the limits for a Class 
computing device pursuant to 
Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC rules. 
Only peripheral devices (computer 
input/output devices, terminals, 
printers, and so on) certified to 
comply with Class B limits may be 
attached to this computer. 

Operation with noncertified pen 
eral devices is likely to result 
interference to radio and television 

Apple,, II From Apple He to Apple IIgs 

Performance Update 



© Copyright 1986, Apple 
Computer, Inc., for all 
nontextual material, graphics, 
figures, photographs, and all 
computer program listings or 
code in any form, including 
object and source code Ail 
rights reserved. 

Apple, the Apple logo, 
App leTa Ik, ! ma geWri te r , 

LaserWriter, and ProDOS arc 
registered trademarks of Apple 
Computer, Inc. 

Apple Desktop Bus, Apple IIGS, 
Macintosh, and UniDisk are 
trademarks of Apple Computer, 

Apple Care is a registered service 
mark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

1TC Garamond, ITC Avanl 
Garde Gothic, and ITC Zapf 
Dingbats are registered trade- 
marks of International Typ 

Microsoft and MS-DOS are 

registered trademarks of 
Microsoft Corporation. 

Mirage is a trademark of 

POSTSCRIPT is a trademark of 
Adobe Systems Incorpora 

Simultaneously published in the 
USA and Canada. 

Printed in Singapore. 


Figures and tables vll 

Radio and television interference ix 

Chapter 1 What's New? 1 

Before you start up 2 
Features A 

Chapter 2 Making Connections 7 

Slots 9 

Startup slot 10 

Memory expansion slol 11 

slot 3 n 

Ports 11 

Printer port 12 

Modem port 12 

Disk drive port 13 

Game port 13 

Apple Desktop Bus 14 

Monitor port 14 

RGB color monitor port 15 

Chapter3 The Control Panel Program 17 

Gelling to the Control Panel Program 19 
Using the Control Panel Program 22 
Display 25 
Type 25 

Columns 25 
Screen colors 26 
Hertz 27 
Sound 28 
System speed 29 
Clock 29 

Options 30 

Display Language and Keyboard Layout 30 

Keyboard Buffering 30 

Repeat Speed 31 

Repeat Delay 31 

Doubleclick 31 

Cursor Flash 31 
Advanced features 32 

Shift Caps/Lowercase 32 

Fast Space/Delete keys 32 

Dual Speed Keys 32 

High Speed Mouse 32 
Activating slots or ports 33 
Changing the startup drive 34 
Changing printer/modem port settings 35 

Device Connected 38 

Line Length 38 

Delete First LF After CR 38 

Add LF After CR 39 

Echo 39 

Buffering 39 

Baud 40 

Data bits/stop bits 40 

Parity 40 

Handshake signals 41 
RAM disk 41 

Chapter 4 The Mouse Interface 43 

Clicking 44 
Selecting 44 
Dragging 45 
Pull- down menus 46 
Choosing 47 
Editing 48 

Inserting 49 

Deleting 50 

Cutting and pasting 51 

Copying 52 

iv Contents 


Windows 53 

Changing the size of a window $4 

Moving a window 54 

Activating a window 54 

Changing the view through a window 55 

Closing a window 55 
The Finder 55 

Appendix A Troubleshooting 57 

Trouble starling up 57 
Trouble using an application 59 
Trouble using the keyboard 59 
Trouble using the mouse 60 
Cleaning the mouse 60 
Trouble with the display 6l 
Trouble saving a document 63 
Trouble printing 63 
Trouble with the modem 65 

Appendix B a Technical Introduction to the Apple IIgs 67 

Compatibility 67 

Microprocessor 68 
Memory 68 

Main and auxiliary RAM 68 

Applesoft in RAM 69 
Text and graphics 69 

40/80-colunin text 69 

Low, high, and double-high resolution 69 
I/O and expansion 69 

Serial I/O ports 70 

Disk I/O port 70 

Game port 70 

Expansion slots 70 



New hardware features 71 
l6-bit microprocessor 71 
Two clock speeds 72 
Memory expansion 72 
3.5-inch disks and 5,25-inch disks 73 
Apple Desktop Bus 74 

Detached keyboard 74 

Mouse 74 
Built-in clock 74 
Display 75 

RGB and NTSC video output 75 

Colored text and border 75 

Super-high-resoluiion graphics 76 
Sound 77 
New firmware features 77 
Control Panel 77 
Enhanced Monitor 78 

Improved display 78 

Long addresses 78 

New commands 78 

Mini-assembler and disassembler 79 
Full interrupt support 79 
Apple Desktop Bus 80 
AppleTalk 80 
New software tools 80 
Reference manuals 81 
Overview 81 

Hardware and firmware 81 
Development environment 82 
Related manuals 82 

Appendix C Apple IIgs Pin-Oufs 83 

Headphone jack 83 
Printer and modem ports 83 
Game port 84 
Disk drive port 84 
RGB video port 85 
Apple Desktop Bus 85 
Internal speaker 85 
Internal game connector 86 

Index 87 



Figures and tables 

Chapter 1 

What's New? 1 

Figure 1-1 

Main circuit board 5 

Chapter 2 

Making Connections 7 

Figure 2-1 

Slots 9 

Table 2-1 

Slots and ports 10 

Figure 2-2 

Ports 11 

Chapter 3 

The Control 

Panel Program 17 

Figure 3-1 

Gateway to ihe Control Panel Program 19 

Figure 3-2 

Desk Accessories menu 20 

Figure 3-3 

Control Panel Program Main Menu 21 

Figure 3-4 

Control Panel Program display 22 

Figure 3-5 

Control Panel Program overview 24 

Figure 3-6 

Choosing color of text, background, 
and border 27 

Figure 3-7 

Changing volume 28 

Figure 3-8 

Activating slots or ports 33 

Table 3-1 

Standard port settings 37 

Chapter 4 

The Mouse 

Interface 43 

Figure 4-1 

Pointing 44 

Figure 4-2 

Clicking 44 

Figure 4-3 

Dragging to select 45 

Figure 4-4 

Menu 46 

Figure 4-5 

Choosing a command 47 

Figure 4-6 

Insertion point 48 

Figure 4-7 

Inserting text 49 

Figure 4-8 

Deleting text 50 

Figure 4-9 

Cutting text 51 

Figure 4-10 

Pasting text 52 

Figure 4-11 

Parts of a window 53 


Appendix A Troubleshooting 57 

Figure A-l Mouse belly 60 

Appendix B A Technical Introduction to the Apple IIgs 67 

Table B-l Features of 65816 microprocessor 71 

Figure B-l Memory map 73 
Table B-2 Interrupts 79 

Appendix C Apple IIgs Pin-Outs 83 

Figure C-l Printer and modem port pin-ouls 

Figure C-2 Game port pin-outs 84 

Figure C-3 Disk drive port pin-outs 84 

Figure C-4 RGB video port pin-outs 85 

Figure C-5 Apple Desktop Bus pin-outs 85 

Figure C-6 Internal game connector pin -outs 



Figures and tables 

A shielded cable has a rnelallic 
wrap around the wires ro reduce 
the potential effects of radio- 
frequency interference. 


Radio and television interference 

The equipment described in this manual generates and uses radio- 
frequency energy. If il is not installed and used properly — that is, in strict 
accordance with our instructions — it may cause interference with radio 
and television reception. 

This equipment has been tested and complies with the limits for a Class B 
computing device in accordance with the specifications in Subpart j,, Part 
15, of FCC rules. These rules are designed to provide reasonable protection 
against such interference in a residential installation. However, there is no 
guarantee that the interference will not occur in a particular installation, 
especially if a "rabbit-ear" television antenna is used. CA rabbit-ear antenna 
is the telescoping-rod type usually found on television receivers.) 

You can determine whether your computer is causing interference by 
turning it off. If the interference stops, it was probably caused by the 
computer or its peripheral devices. To further isolate the problem, 
disconnect the peripheral devices and their input/output cables one at a 
time. If the interference stops, it was caused by either the peripheral device 
or the I/O cable. These devices usually require shielded I/O cables. For 
Apple peripherals, you can obtain the proper shielded cable from your 
dealer. For non-Apple peripheral devices, contact the manufacturer or 
dealer for assistance. 

Your Apple computer and Its peripheral devices were FCC-certifled under 
test conditions that included use of shielded cabJes and connectors 
between system components. It is important that you us© shielded cables 
and connectors to reduce the possibility of causing interference to radio. 
television, and other electronic devices. 

If your computer does cause interference to radio or television reception, 
you can try to correct the interference by using one or more of the 
following measures: 

■ Turn the television or radio antenna until the interference stops. 

■ Move the computer to one side or the other of the television or radio. 

■ Move the computer farther away from the television or radio. 

■ Plug the computer into an outlet thai is on a different circuit than the 
television or radio. ([That is, make certain the computer and the radio or 
television set are on circuits controlled by different circuit breakers or 

■ Consider installing a rooftop television antenna with a coaxial cable 
lead-in between the antenna and television. 

If necessary, consult your authorized Apple dealer or an experienced 
radio/television technician for additional suggestions. 

Chapter 1 

What's New? 

You already know how to use the Apple® He, so this hook is aboul 
the features ihai distinguish ilie Apple lies™ from the Apple lie and 
aboul the new mouse-based interface that will be common to many 
of the new applications developed or adapted for the Apple IIGS. 

J I Ti.i's a breakdown of the book chapter by chapter: 

■ Chapter 1 describes the features that distinguish the Apple IIGS 
from the Apple Tic. 

■ Chapter 2 explains new things you need to know aboul connecting 
peripheral devices to the Apple III fS, 

■ Chapter 3 explains how to use the Apple JIGS's built-in Control 
Panel Program to customize your computer system. 

■ Chapter A tells you what to expect from mouse-based applica- 
tions — applications that use built-in programming tools to make 
applications easier to learn and more intuitive to use. You'll also 
learn about the DeskTop, a mouse-based utility applu ati< m and 
program selector that lets you switch quickly from one appli 
lion to another. 

■ Appendix A is a troubleshooting guide, 

■ Appendix B describes the differences between the Apple IIGS and 
other models of the Apple II in more technical terms. If you write 
application^ xs well as use ihcrn, you might want to go directly to 
Appendix B. 

■ Appendix C shows pin-outs for the ports on the back panel 

Before you start up 

If you've got deadlines to meet and ongoing work thai doesn i per 
mil you the luxur\ i A exploring all the new features of the Apple lies 
right now, go ahead and start using it. You can connect peripheral 
devices and use applications in much the same way you did on \ 
Apple He with a couple of provisions: 

Chapter 1 : What's New? 

■ When you install an inierface card in a slot on the Apple HGS you 
need to activate ihc slot before the Apple Hgs will know there's a 
card in .t. You do this by using the Control Panel Program, which 
is explained in Chapter 3. it's a simple procedure, and once you 
aenvate a slot, it stays active. The reason it's necessary is that 
each port on the back of the Apple IIGS is designed to 
impersonate a particular slot with an interface card. (This is so 
applications that look for devices connected to slots will also be 
able to find devices connected to ports.) You can't have both a 
port and its corresponding slot active at the same time You 
activate one or the other by using the Control Panel Program. 

■ If you have both a 5.25-inch disk drive and a 35-inch disk drive 
connected to your Apple HGS, the computer will try to start up 
from the 5.25-inch drive. If you want to start up from the 3 5-inch 
drive, read "Changing the Startup Drive" in Chapter 3. 

■ If you had a UniDisk™ 3.5-inch drive connected lo a disk drive 
controller card in your Apple He, you must connect it to the disk 
dnve port on the Apple IIGS in order for the computer to access 

■ Cards designed for the Apple He's AUX. CONNECTOR slot can't 
be installed in any of the slots on the Apple lies circuit board 
Most of the features you got by adding a card to the AUX 
CONNECTOR slot (an 80-column display, additional memory) 
are built into the Apple IIGS, so this shouldn't be a problem. 

i The Apple HGS's microprocessor can operate at two speeds- 1 
MHz (megahertz) and 2.8 MHz, The standard speed for the 
App e He is 1 MHz. Ihe standard operating speed for the 
Apple IIGS is 2.8 MHz, The Apple IIGS will run all programs at the 
Faster speed-even programs developed for earlier models of the 
Apple II. Most of the time, faster is better; but if the faster speed 
throws off the timing of applications or keeps them from running 
properly, you can change to I MHz by using the Control Panel 
Program, explained in Chapter 3. 

Before you start up 


Mere are some of ihe features that distinguish ihe Apple IIGS from 
the Apple lie: 

■ 65C816 microprocessor: a l6-bit processor with a processing 
speed up to three limes faster than the 8-bit processor in the 
Apple He. 

■ 256K RAM standard 

■ 128K ROM including Applesoft BASIC. 

■ Super-high-resolution graphics (640 by 200 dots using 4 colors; 
320 by 200 dots using 16 colors). Supports all other Apple II 
graphics modes (low resolution high resolution, double-high 

■ Tools in ROM for developing programs that use icons, pull-down 
menus, and other components of mouse-based, Macintosh-like 
applications. You may not use these tools to develop applica- 
tions yourself, but the fact that they're in ROM means that lots of 
mouse-based applications will be developed for the Apple IIGS 
and you'll be able to use them, 

■ Built-in clock, so documents can be marked with the date and 
time you created or revised them, 

■ Ability to set the built-in clock, customize the look of the display, 
and alter the feel of the computer system by using the Control 
Panel Program in ROM. 

■ Ability to use desk accessories — miniature applications like a 
notepad, a calculator, a clock — without leaving your main 

■ Built-in 80-column capability, so you don't need to add a special 
interface card to get an 80-column display. 

■ Choice of color for text, background, and border of display by 
using the Control Panel Program. 

■ High-quality sound. By using software designed for the purpose, 
you can get your system to generate 15-voice sound and even 

Chapter 1 : What's New? 

■ Built-in support for standard peripheral devices through ports 

on the back panel, so you can add up to four disk drives (either 
3.5-inch drives or 5.25-inch drives), a printer, a modem, 
a mouse, a monochrome monitor, an analog KGB color 
monitor, and connect to an AppleTalk™ Personal Network 
without using interface cards. 

■ Memory expansion slot. By putting a special memory card in the 
memory expansion slot, you can add from 1 to 8 megabytes of 
RAM to your Apple IIGS. New applications will use the extra I 

ory on the card as an extension of the built-in RAM. You can also 
use the memory on the card as a RAM disk. 

The best thing about these new features is that they are imp! 
in such a way thai you can go on using most of the Apple lie pro- 
grams and peripheral devices you already have, 

General-purpose slots 

ROM (12BK) Includes Applesoft 
BASIC and Control Pane! Program 

65C816 microprocessor 

RAM (256K) 

Memory expansion slot 

Figure 1-1 

Main circuit board 

♦ iXote: The screws packed with your Apple II OS are for securing 
the lid of the computer to the case, 


Chapter 2 

Making Connections 


There are two ways 10 connect peripheral devices lo your 
Apple IICS: by using the pons on [he back panel, 01 j, the 

slols on ihe main circuit board. The advantage of using ports is that 
it's easy — just run a cable from the device lo the computer. The 
advantage of using slots is that you can connect a wide variety of 
devices to the computer. You aren't limited lo ihe devices for which 
there arc ports. 

■enially, some of the devices that you connected lo the 
Apple ITe with an interface card (serial printers, modems, disk 
drives) can be connecied directly to ports on the Apple 11GS. To do 
this, you may need to get a cable designed for the port on the I k 
panel. You may not be able lo use the cable that plugged inio the 
interface card. If you don't want to bother getting a new cable, go on 
using your interface card it's up to you. 

Important There are a few types of Interface cards that you may not be 
able to use with the Apple lies. These potentially incompatible 
cards Include accelerators, multifunction cards, certain 
80-column text cards, and all cards designed for the AUX. 
CONNECTOR slot on the Apple lie. If you nave any questions, 
ask your authorized Apple dealer. 

Chapter 2: Making Connections 

- c i oto iojjj 

Slots - 


There are seven general-purpose slots on Lhe main circuit board of 
ihe Apple IIGS, (See Figure 2-1 ,) 

Figure 2-1 


They serve ihe same purpose and work the same way as ihe slots on 

the Apple .He — or, they witf work Lhe same way as soon as you acii- 
vaie them The reason it's necessary 10 activate slots is that each 
port on the back of the Apple IIGS impersonates a particular slot 
with an interface card. (This is so programs that look for devices 
connected to slots will also be able to find devices connected to 
ports.) The Apple IIGS assumes you want the ports to be active 
unless you activate a particular slot by using the Control Panel 
Program, explained in Chapter 3. 

Important If you install more than three Interface cards, you should also 
install a fan to keep your system from overheating. Fans are 
available from your authorized Apple dealer. 

Table 2-1 shows you which port or buik-in function corresponds to 
which slot so you know what you're deactivating when you activate a 
particular slot. 


Table 2-1 

Slots and ports 


Connected to 

Looks like a card In 


Printer port 

Slot 1 


Modem port 

Slot 2 

80 -column support 


Slot 3 


Apple Desktop Bus™ 

Slot 4 

3- 5 -inch drive drive port 

Slot 5 

5.25-inch drive 

Disk drive port 

Slot 6 


Printer or modem port 


Startup slot 

When you turn on the Apple IIGS, the first thing the computer does 
is check its slots (or corresponding ports) for a startup device. It 
looks first in slot 7, the highest-numbered slot. If it doesn't find a 

startup device there, it looks in slot 6, the next-highest-numbered 
slot, and so on until it finds a disk drive of some sort. This method 
of looking for a startup device is called scanning. Your Apple lie did 
the same thing before it got its board-lift. 

But with the Apple IIGS, scanning is just one of your startup options. 
If you don't want the computer to start up from the device in the 
highest-numbered slot, you can designate a particular slot as the 
startup slot by using the Control Panel Program, explained in 
Chapter 3 


Chapter 2: Making Connections 

Memory expansion slot 

The memory expansion slot is lor adding a memory expansion card 
to the Apple IICS. By adding a memory expansion card, you can 
increase the memory in increments of 256K by 1 to 8 megabytes. 

Do not confuse the Apple IIGS's memory expansion slot with the 
Apple lie's AUX. CONNECTOR slot. The AUX. CONNECTOR slot 
is Jnr adding 80-column capability, additional KANT, and RGB 
color capability to the Apple lie. Those features are built into the 
Apple IIGS, so you don't need the slot or the card you had plugged 
into it. 

Slot 3 

As with your Apple lie, you shouldn't put an interface card in slot 3 
unless the instructions that came with the card specifically say it's 
OK. Slot 3 was the 80-column card slot in earlier models of the 
Apple II, and For purposes of software compatibility, a card in slot 3 
may interfere with the Apple IIGS's built-in 80-column capability. 


Figure 2-2 gives you an overview of which device goes with which 


p nfei 


Stereo headphones 

Joystick or hand controls 
Disk drive , 

Analog RGB color monltoi 

Monochrome monitor 

Mouse and other Apple 
Desktop Bus devices 

Figure 2-2 





Most of Lhc ports on the back of your Apple 1IGS are designed lor a 
particular type of peripheral device (stereo headphones, a joystick, 
disk drives, a monochrome monitor or an NTSC composite color 
monitor, an RGB color monitor, a mouse, or some other Apple 
Desktop Bus™ device). The exceptions are the printer and modem 
ports. These are general-purpose serial ports, and you can change 
their configuration so mat the computer can communicate with a 
wide variety of serial devices. 

You change trie configuration of the serial ports by using the Con- 
trol Panel Program, This is analogous to changing the switch 
sellings 00 a serial interface card. 

Printer port 

The printer port is set up to work with the Apple Imagewritcr, the 
Apple ImageWriter™ II, and many other serial printers. If your 
serial device requires a different configuration — if it doesn't work 
when you plug it in and try to print something — you can change the 
characteristics of the port by using the Control Panel Program, 
explained in Chapter 3- 

Modem port 

The modem port is set up for exchanging information with most 
popular information services. The baud is set to 1200, but you can 
easily change that and other characteristics of the port by using the 
Control Panel Program, explained in Chapter 3. 

Important Some communications programs that work with a serial 

interface card, like the Apple Super Serial Card™, won't work 
with modems connected to the Apple lies modem port. These 
programs address a particular chip on the serial interface card 
called the ACIA. The serial Interface that's buitt Into the Apple 
lies performs the same functions as the card, but doesn't use 
the same hardware, so applications that address the hardware 
directly won't work if your modem is connected to the port. If 
you have such an application, your alternative Is to get an 
application designed to work with the serial interface built info 
the Apple IIgs or to go on using your serial interface card. 

12 Chapter 2 Making Connections 

Disk drive port 

You can connect up to four disk drives to the Apple 11.GS through the 
disk drive port The first drive plugs into the port, and the others 
plug into each other in a daisy chain. You can connect both 3.5- 
inch and 5.25-inch drives in one daisy chain, but only two of either 
type, and the 3.5-inch drives must be connected closest to trie 
computer in the daisy chain. 

Tf you have both 5.25-inch drives and 35-inch drives connected to 
the port, the computer will try to start up from the 5.25-inch drive 
(which looks to the computer as if it's connected to slot 6). If you 
want to start up from a disk in your 3.5-inch drive (which looks to the 
computer as if it's connected to slot 5), make sure the 5.25-inch 
drive is empty. When the computer cant find a disk in the 5.25-inch 
drive, it will check the 3. 5-inch drive next. 

♦ Note: This works only with drives connected in a daisy chain II 
your drive is empty and it's connected to a disk controller card, 
you'll get the message CHECK startup device. 

Depending on whether the majority of your applications arc on 
inch or 5,25-inch disks, you might want to use the Control Panel 
Program, explained in Chapter 3, to change the startup drive. 

Game port 

The game port is identical to the game port on the Apple He. Use it 
to connect a joystick or a pair of hand controls. 

Important Don't use the game port to connect a mouse! If you have an 

Apple He mouse, you should connect it by using the mouse inter- 
face card, as you did on your Apple He. If you have a mouse 
designed for tne Apple IIgs. you should connect It to the Apple 
Desktop Bus. 

Ports 13 

Apple Desktop Bus 

The Apple Desktop Bus is for connecting an Apple IIGS mouse and 
other Apple Desktop Bus devices. It's called a bus instead of a port 
because several devices can "ride" one connector. Tt's called a 
desklopbus because the only thing desktop devices have in com- 
mon is that they all fit on Lhc desktop. Devices that use this bus will 
be labeled Apple. Desktop Bus devices. 

The icon below the Apple desktop port represents a daisy chain of 
devices. That's because you can connect one Apple desktop device 
to the port and daisy-chain other desktop devices to that. 

If you have an Apple Desktop Bus mouse, connect it directly to the 
Apple Desktop Bus, as shown in Figure 2-2. If you also have a de- 
tached Apple Desktop Bus keyboard, connect the keyboard to Lhc 
computer and daisy-chain the mouse to the keyboard- 
Important If you have a mouse designed for the Apple He. you can use it with 
the Apple Hgs, but you can't connect It to the Apple Desktop Bus. 
Connect it to one of the slots on the main circuit board— slot 4 If 

If you connect a detached keyboard to your system, keep in mind 
thai the built-in keyboard is still connected. With applications that 
tell you to press the Caps Lock key, you may need to lock the key 
down on both keyboards to get the application to work properly. 

Monitor port 

This port works just like the monitor port on an Apple He. Use it to 
connect a monochrome monitor or an NTSC composite color 

If you find text in color hard to read in some programs, you can turn 
off the color by changing the Control Panel Display Type setting to 

14 Chapter 2: Making Connections 

RGB color monitor port 

This port lets you connect an analog RGB color monitor. 

If you find text in color hard to read in some programs, you can turn 
off the color by changing the Control Panel Display Type setting to 

Important If you had an RGB color monitor connected to an RGB card in the 
AUX. CONNECTOR slot on your Apple lie, you won't be able to use 
that monitor with the Apple lies. The built-in RGB color capability on 
the Apple lies Is for an analog RGB color monitor, while the RGB 
capability you got by adding an RGB card to the AUX. 
CONNECTOR slot on the Apple He was for a digital RGB color 

Chapter 3 

The Control Panel Program 


The Apple IIGS is a versatile machine. You can control the speed of 
the microprocessor, the color of ihc text and background displayed 
on the screen, the responsiveness of the keys on the keyboard, the 
volume of the built-in speaker, and more. The way you control 
these things is through the Control Panel, a program that is built 
into the Apple IIGS. 

While the Control Panel Program is permanently stored in the 
Apple IIGS, your system preferences arc recorded in a special kind 
of battery-powered RAM that, unlike ordinary RAM, retains what's 
stored in it even after the power is turned off. This means you can 
make changes to your system configuration and save the configu- 
ration for next time. The battery should last between five and ten 
years. If it ever runs low, the Control Panel Program restores the 
original system configuration. If this happens, have your authorized 
Apple dealer replace the battery; then use the Control Panel Pro- 
gram to reconfigure your system the way you like it. 

Incidentally, applications can override your settings for special 
effects and special reasons of their own. For example, you may have 
the speed set to normal, but the application can override your set- 
ting and run at the faster speed. 


la Chapter 3; The Control Panel Program 

IIIVVRoTIiyftQ^ 1111 XiOrt u u .-.«-- -- 

Getting to the Control Panel Program 

To get to the Control Panel Program, hold down the Solid Apple 
key <ji) while you turn on the Apple IIGS power switch. You'll see 
Figure 3-1. 

♦> Note: On the Apple IIGS detached keyboard, the Solid Apple 
key (^) is labeled Opiion. If you're using the detached key- 
board, press Option wherever this manual says lo press ^. 

Figure 3-1 

Gateway to the Control Panel Program 

Press 1 to enter the Control Panel. The only lime you should choose 
a menu item other than 1 is if you need to restore the standard Con- 
trol Panel settings for the U.S. (press 2) or if you change your mind 
about entering the Control Panel (press 4). 

I m porta n I Do not press 3 unless you are operating your Apple IIgs in a country 
where the standard signal frequency for monitors Is 50 hertz. If you 
choose the wrong hertz setting, the image on your monitor will roll or 
be out of alignment. To restore the standard U.S. settings, press 
#-Control-Reset, Then press 2, 

Getting to the Control Panel Program 1 9 

If the power is already on r you can gel to ihe Control Panel Pro- 
gram by pressing tf-Conlrol-Reset or (3-Control-Esc. Pressing 
tf-Conirol-Resct restarts the computer, so you should use 
&-Control-Esc to get to the Control Panel if you are in the process 
of using an application and want to return to your application after 
using the Control Panel Program. 

♦ Note: On the Apple 1IGS detached keyboard, there is only one 
Apple key ($3). It corresponds 10 the Open Apple key on earlier 
Apple He's. 

Pressing d-ControI-Esc brings up the Desk Accessories menu, 

rather than Ihe screen you get by pressing tf -Control-Reset. (See 
Kgure 3-2.) 

Figure 3-2 

Desk Accessories menu 

♦ Alternate Display Mode: The Desk Accessories menu will also 
include an accessory called Alternate Display Mode. The 
Apple IIGS displays information differently than earlier models 
of the Apple II. This interferes with the display of a few 
applications. Choosing the Alternate Display Mode desk 
accessory temporarily makes the display work the old wa 
those applications can run. When you're finished with the 
application, choose Lhe accessory again to turn off Alternate 
Display Mode. The Alternate Display Mode is turned off 
automatically when you restart the computer. 

20 Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

♦ By the way. Some programs don't send you lo the Desk 
Accessories menu when you press &Control-Esc U that's the 
case with an application you're using, you won't be able to use 
desk accessories while using that application. However, you can 
get to the Control Panel before or after using that application by 
starting up with the ^ key pressed down or, if the power is on, by 
pressing # -Control- Reset If it's a ProDOS™ application, have 
your authorized Apple dealer upgrade the application with 
ProDOS 1.2. Once the application has been upgraded to 
ProDOS 1.2, you will be able lo access desk accessories while 
using your application. 

The Control Panel is different from other desk accessories in that it 
is stored in the permanent memory of the computer — not in RAM 
with the other desk accessories — but you can access ii the same way 
you access other desk accessories, by pressing d-Control-JiSC If 
you don't have an Apple UGS System Disk or if you haven't loaded 
any desk accessories by using the Finder, the Control Panel and 
Alternate Display Mode will be the only options on the Desk 
Accessories menu besides Quit. 

Choose the Control Panel option and you'll see the display shown 
in Figure 3-3. 

is ten Speed 


Printer Port 
Moder«i Port 
RAM Disk 


Figure 3-3 

Control Panel Program Main Menu 

Getting to the Control Panel Program 


The bent arrow (j) shown on all 
of the Control Panel screens 
represents the Return k.oy 

Using the Control Panel Program 

The Control Panel Program Main Menu lists all the functions you 
can customize. To select one of the functions: 

1. Press Up Arrow or Down Arrow to highlight the Option you 

2. Press Return. 

Depending on which option you select from the Main Menu, you'J 
see a secondary display like the one shown in Figure 3-4. 


• Col up— 

-Sc.- sen Co lor s— 

• T« ,t« 

v Background : MediUM Blue 
•f Sorter PleJiuw Blue 
v Standards' Yes 

Cancel " Esc 5 - : 

Figure 3-4 

Control Panel Program display 


Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

To change one of the sellings: 

1. Press Up Arrow or Down Arrow lo highlight the setting you want 
to change. 

2 , Press Right Arrow or Left Arrow until you see the setting you 
want (The original settings are marked with a check in case you 
want to put things back the way you found them) 

3- Press Return to save the setting (or Esc if you decide you don't 
want to change the setting after all). You'll return lo the Main 

4. Choose Quit. If you got to the Control Panel by pressing 
(3-Comrol-Esc from an application, you'll return to thai 
application. If you got to the Control Panel by pressing 
ft-Control-Resel, the computer will start up the application 
in your startup drive, 

Figure 3-5 gives you an overview of the system characteristics you 
can change and what you can change them to. 

The sections that follow describe Control Panel options — system 
characteristics you can change and reasons you might want to 
change them. 

Using the Control Panel Program 23 

Figure 3-5 

Control Panet Program overview 


Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 


Use the Display option to set the type of display (color or mono- 
chrome), the number of columns of text displayed, and the color 
or shade you'd like for text, background, and border. 


If you're using a color monitor, select Color as the type of display. 
If you're using a monochrome monitor or a television set, select 

Incidentally, if the lexl displayed on your color monitor is fuzzy or 
has a color fringe when you use certain applications, try changing 
Type to Monochrome and see if you get a better picture. If there 
isn't enough contrast with a monochrome monitor, try setting Type 
to Color. 


'Hie Apple UGS can display either 40 columns by 24 lines of text or 
80 columns by 24 lines. If you choose 40 columns, the characters 
are twice as wide as the characters you get when you choose 80 
columns. The advantage of the 40-column display is that the 
characters are bigger and easier to read. The advantage of the 80- 
column display is mat you can work with larger documents, and the 
documents have a line length that more closely resembles type- 
written documents. 

Television sets and some color moniLors don't have good enough 
resolution to display 80 columns of text clearly, so if you're using a 
television set or if you're having trouble reading text produced by 
your color monitor, set the Columns option to 40, 

If you're using a monitor, and particularly if you use your Apple IIGS 
with business applications Qike word processing and spreadsheet 
applications), set the Columns option to 80. Some applications 
require an 80-column display. 

Display 25 

Some applications will override this setting and select the number 
of columns for you. Some older applications won't work unless the 
Control Panel is set to 40 columns. 


Screen colors 

If you have a color display, you can choose the color of your text, 
background, and border from 16 colors. If you have a mono- 
chrome monitor, you can choose the shade of your text, back- 
ground, and border from black, white, or 14 shades of gray. These 
sellings affect only text-based applications. 

NTSC color monitors switch to black-and-white mode to display 
text, so the lexi and background colors you select with the Control 
Panel will show up as shades of gray instead of in color. Only the 
border will be displayed in color. 

As you change one color or shade to another by using Left Arrow 
and Right Arrow, the Control Panel displays the name of the color 
you've chosen and shows you what your selection looks like, 

If you are using an NTSC color monitor, the colors you select won't 
show up In color while you're using the Control Panel Program or 
other text-based applications, You will see the text and background 
In color only when you're using graphics-based applications that 
display text In the text portion (the bottom four lines) of the graphics 


Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 


v U£I?Xi9 Color 

- lupins : 40 

-■Screen Colors— 
v Text 1 White 
v B-ackgrourtd : Medium Blue 
v' Border- Nedium Blue 
V Standards Yes 

Select^ ^ -* 

Figure 3-6 

Choosing color of text, background, and border 

After experimenting with different colors or shades, you may de- 
cide you liked the original colors best. To restore the preset colors, 
use Left Arrow or Right Arrow to change Lhc Standard Colors option 
to Yes. If you decide you don't like lhc standard colors after all, you 
can change them by using the Text, Background, and Border 
options. You can't change the Standard Colors setting to No as a 
way of restoring your previous settings. 

Important If the color contrast between text and background is such that you 
can't read the text to change the settings to something more read- 
able, first try adjusting the contrast knob on your monitor. If that 
doesn't help, you can restore the original Control Panel settings by 
pressing ^-Control-Reset and then pressing 2. 

If you don't want a border, set the background and border to the 
same color or shade of gray. 


The hertz setting indicates the frequency of signals sent to the moni- 
tor. Different countries have different standards; the U.S. standard 
is 60 This is not a matter of preference. If you need to change the 
hertz setting — if the image on your screen is rolling or out of align- 
ment — press ^-Control-Reset. Then press 2. This restores the stan- 
dard Control Panel settings for the U.S., including the correct hertz 

Display 27 


With Lhc appropriate applications and peripheral devices, the 
Apple IIG5 can play music and even simulate speech. Even the 
stuffiest software uses a bell or beep to accompany an error mes- 
sage. The Sound option lets you change the volume of sounds and 
ihe pitch of beeps generated by applications. 

This option works a little differently than the others. Instead of using 
Left Arrow and Right Arrow to move through a list of choices, you 
press Left Arrow to reduce the volume and Right Arrow to increase 
the volume. The asterisk on the indicator bar will move to the right 
or left, and you'll hear a beep to reflect your action. (Sec Figure 3-7.) 

■_:"_•] 1 in el 

Indicator bar 

v M»wm i — ■ x f 

v Pitch' 1 * 1 

Select^ «• * Jr 4 Cancel Esc Sau«> J 

Figure 3-7 

Changing volume 

Chapter 3: Toe Control Panel Program 

System speed 

The Apple IIGS can operate at two speeds: fast and normal. Fast 
refers to the speed of the Apple IIGS when it's operating at a max- 
imum speed of 2.8 megahertz (MHz), the lop speed possible on the 
Apple IIGS. Normal refers to the speed of the Apple IIGS when it's 
operating at a maximum speed of 1 MHz, the top speed possible on 
earlier models of the Apple IK 

Fast, the standard setting, is best for applications developed spe- 
cifically for the Apple IIGS and for any Apple II application that 
involves a lot of calculations and sorting. The only time you have to 
change the speed to normal is when the fast speed throws off the 
application's liming or keeps it from running properly. 

If you change from Normal to Fast after starting up an applica- 
tion, you may have to restart the application by pressing 
(3-Conirol-Reset before the Fast speed will take effect. 


The Clock option lets you set the time and date of the Apple IlGS's 
built-in clock and calendar. Once you've set the battery-operated 
clock, you won't have to set it again. The battery lasts between five 
and ten years. You can also use this option to change the date 
format from month first to day first or year first and to change the 
way time is displayed from the AM/PM formal to the 24 -hour 

Clock 29 


Character set defines which of 
several possible alternates is 
displayed when you press a 
given key location on the key- 

Display Language and Keyboard Layout 

The Display Language and Keyboard Layout options let you cus- 
tomize the character set and keyboard layouts for a variety of 
international keyboards or for the Dvorak keyboard. The Dvorak 
keyboard layout is an arrangement of keys designed to increase 
typing speed and efficiency by locating the keys used most often in 
trie home row. 'I Tie Dvorak keyboard is also called the American 
Simplified Keyboard. 

Keyboard Buffering 

The keyboard buffer is a special part of RAM where keystrokes are 
stored when the computer is busy and can't deal with them imme- 
diately. The buffer can keep track of up to 256 keystrokes. (After that, 
keystrokes are ignored.) This lets you type a series of instructions i , 
the computer while the computer is doing something else — like 
saving a document on a disk. If you find this feature getting you into 
trouble (if you find yourself typing instructions that you later 
repent), you can turn off the keyboard buffer by using the Keyboard 
Buffering option. 


Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

Repeat Speed 

n you hold down a key instead of pressing and releasing ii, the 

key repeats, like thissssssssss. You can change the speed at which 
keys repeat by using ihe Repeat Speed option. Press Right Arrow to 
make keys repeat faster; Left Arrow to make keys repeat slower. 

Repeat Delay 

You can use the Repeat Delay option to change the amount of time 
it takes from trie lime you press and hold down a key until it starts 

Double Click 

Double clicking means pressing and releasing the mouse button 
twice in rapid succession. It's a shortcut you'll learn about when you 
use mouse-based applications. The application interprets your two 
clicks as a double-click only if the two clicks are done within a cer- 
tain time interval. You can change the time interval by using the 
Double Click option. 

Cursor Flash 

In many applications, the cursor flashes to distinguish it from other 
characters on the screen. You can speed up or slow down the 
interval between flashes by using the Cursor Flash option. 

Options 31 

Advanced features 

The next few features are somewhat esoteric, but if you think they 
might be useful, give them a try. 

Shift Caps/Lowercase 

Ordinarily, when you push Caps Lock down, everything you type is 
capitalized; to get lowercase characters, you have to release Caps 
Lock. But by setting the Shift Caps/Lowercase option to Yes, you 
can have Caps Lock down and get lowercase characters by holding 
down Shift while you type. In other words, by activating this feature, 
Shift has the opposite effect that it does when Caps Lock is not 
pressed down. 

Fast Space/Delete keys 

When you hold down the Space bar, the space repeats like any other 
character, and you gel a row of spaces. Likewise, when you hold 
down Delete, successive characters arc deleted until you release the 
key. By setting Fast Space/Delete to Yes, you can double the speed 
of these two actions by holding down Control while holding down 
e or Delete. 

Dual Speed Keys 

Selling ihe Dual Speed Keys option to Yes doubles the speed of the 
cursor's movement when you hold down an arrow key while pressing 

High Speed Mouse 

When you move the mouse across your desk, a pointer moves a cor- 

''inding distance across your screen. Selling the High Speed 
Mouse option to Yes makes the pointer move twice as far for the 
same mouse movement. It's useful if you're short on desk space. 

32 Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

Activating slots or ports 

Software designed for earlier models of the Apple II expects to find 
devices connected to slots inside the computer. For this reason, 
each port on the Apple IIGS is designed lo impersonate a slot con- 
taining a card, (See Table 2-1.) 

Because each port impersonates a slot, you can't have both the port 
and the corresponding slot active at the same time, You activate 
one or the other by using the Slots command. In Figure 3-8, the 
printer port is active, but the modem port is not The user has cho- 
sen to activate the card in slot 2 instead of the modem port. N< 
that when a slot is activated, the words Your card replace the words 
describing the port. 

I m portanl Your changes won't take effect until you restart your computer. 


, ttFlSMB Printer Port 

• Siot 1 Your Card 

v' Slot 3 : Built-in Text Display 

v Slot 4- Mouse Port 

• Slot 5; Snart Port 
v Slot €■ Disk Port 
v- Slot 7= Your Card 

• Startup Slot' Scam 

Cancel ; Es 

Figure 3-S 

Activating slots or ports 

♦ About the disk drive port: When 3.5-inch drives are connected 
to die disk drive port, they appear to be connected to a card in 
slot 5. When 5.25-inch drives arc connected to the disk drive 
port, they appear lo be connected to a card in slot 6. When the 
disk drive port impersonates a card in slot 5» it's described as a 
"smart port." (See Figure 3-8.) 

Activating slots or ports 33 

When you have an AppIeTalk network cable connected to Lhe 
printer or modem port, Lhe port impersonates a card in slot 7 — not 
slot 1 or 2 as you would expect. But because the AppIeTalk cable 
plugs into one of the [wo serial ports, the Control Panel Program 
won't let you activate the printer port, the modem port, and 
AppIeTalk all at the same time. 

Changing the startup drive 

When you turn on the Apple JIGS power switch, the first thing the 
computer does is check its slots for a disk drive controller card — an 
interface card thai controls one or two disk drives. It looks fust at 
slot 7, the highest-numbered slot. If it doesn't find a disk drive con- 
troller card there, it looks in slot 6 t the next-highest-numbered 
slot, then slot 5, and so on, until it finds a disk drive controller 
card. When it finds a disk drive controller card, it checks the disk 
drive connected to that card for a startup disk, This method of 
looking for a startup device is called scanning. 

Generally this system works fine, but what if you want to bypass the 
disk drive connected to slot 6 and start up from the disk drive con- 
nected to slot 5? What you do is change the startup slot from Scan, 
lhe standard setting, to slot 5 or any other slot containing the drive 
you want to start up from. 

But what if your disk drives are connected [q ports? From Lhe 
puter's point of view, ports look just like slots with cards in them, A 
5.25-inch drive connected to lhe disk drive port emulates a disk 
drive connected to a card in slot 6. A 3. 5- inch drive connected to 
the disk drive port emulates a disk drive connected to a card in 
slot 5. (Sec Table 2-1.) Just choose the slot that corresponds to the 
drive you want to start up from. 

You'll also be offered the option of starting up from a RAM disk or a 
ROM disk. Starting up from a RAM disk means starting up from an 
application that you've copied inn ncmoiy on your Apple liGS 

memory expansion card. 

34 Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

You should not select the RAM disk as your startup device unless you 
have a memory expansion card in the memory expansion slot and 
you've copied an application to the RAM disk. See die Apple TICS 
Memory Expansion Card for more information 

Starting up from a ROM disk means starting up from an application 
permanently stored on a memory expansion card^ (Depending on 
what kind of memory expansion card you get, you may or may not 
have applications permanently stored on a ROM disk.) The manual 
that came with your memory expansion card will tell you more 
about starting up from a RAM disk and a ROM disk, 

A remote computer Is the com- 
puter on the other end of the 
phone line. It can be very remote 
(across the country) or only 
siighily remote (across the 

Changing printer/modem port settings 

The printer and modem ports work a little diffcrendy than the other 
ports on the back panel. Whereas most of the ports are configured 
to interact with a particular type of device (a disk drive, a monilor, 
a joystick) in a particular way, the printer and modem ports arc 
designed so you can change their configuration. They are general - 
purpose serial ports. 

Different printers and different remote computers expect to receive 
information at different speeds and in different configurations. 
That's why it's important that you be able to change the way infor- 
mation is sent. 

The printer port is configured to work automatically with the 
ImageWriler scries of printers and with many other popular serial 
printers. The modem port is configured to work automatically with 
most commercial information services you'll be accessing with your 
modem. However, if your device requires a different configuration 
or if you want to use a modem in the printer port and a printer in the 
modem port, you'll need to change the data configuration. There 
arc two ways to do this: from within an application or by using the 
Control Panel Program. The configuration you specify in an appli- 
cation overrides the Control Panel setting for a port 

Changing printer/modem port settings 


How do you know whether your application is overriding the Con- 
trol Panel settings for the port? If the application gives you a list of 
printers and asks you to choose yours from the li-i It's going to send 
the document in the corred configuration for the printer you 
choose and will ignore the Control Panel sellings for the port, 

*!* A tip: Even if your printer is not on the list, try seleuing each of 
the printers on the list. If your printer happens to have the same 
configuration as one of those on the list, you'll save yourself the 
bother of supplying specifications about your printer 

If the application asks you to supply a list of specifications about how 
your printer or the remote computer wants to receive data (baud, 
number of data bits, stop bits, and the like), it's going to send the 
document according to those specifications and will ignore the Con- 
trol Panel settings for the port. You should be able to find the specifi- 
cations for your printer in the manual that came with it or, for an 
information service, in the brochure you got when you subscribed to 
the service. 

♦ By the way: The specifications you'll be asked for in an 
application arc the same specifications you'll set by using the 
Control Panel Program, so if you aren't sure what the appli- 
cation means by data bits, stops bits, and parity, read the 
explanations in the following sections. 

If the application does not give you a lisi of printers and does not ask 
for your printer's specifications, the document will be sent accord- 
ing to trie specifications in the Control Panel for the port your 
printer is connected to. 

Here are the standard sellings for the printer port and the modem 

36 Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

Table 3-1 

Standard port settings 


Printer port 

Modem port 

Device Connected 



Line Length 



Delete First LF After CR 



Add LF After CR 












Data/Stop Bits 


8 1 




DCD handshake 



DSR/DTR handshake 






1m portcmt Try using your printer or modem before changing any of the settings, 
If it works, you'll save yourself some time. If It doesn't, you'll have 
some Information (unintentional double-spacing, absence of 
carriage returns, lost characters, and so on) that will help you figure 
out which settings need to be adjusted. 

If you need 10 reconfigure one of the ports, check the manual that 
came with your printer or the service you're trying to exchange 
information with to see what its specifications are. Then use that 
information to fill in the baud, the number of data bits, and so on. 
The following sections explain what the various specifications mean 
and how to decide what settings to choose. 

Changing printer/modem port settings 


Device Connected 

The Device Connected setting is fairly straightforward. Select 
Printer if you're connecting a printer or plotter to the port. Select 
Modem if you're connecting a modem to the port. 

Line Length 

Line length indicates the number of characters that your printer will 
print per tine before generating a carriage return (sending the 
"carriage" to the left margin to start a new line), Many applications 
let you set the line length from within the application. If that's the 
case or if you find the computer adding carriage returns where they 
don't belong, choose Unlimited and die computer won't try to 
control line length. 

If, on the other hand, you find your printer ignoring the right mar- 
gin and printing right off the page, you can use this option to insert 
a carriage return after every 40, 72, 80, or 132 characters. 

If you're connecting a modem, leave the line length set to 

Delete First LF After CR 

Some printers and applications automatically generate a line feed 
(LF) — go to the next line — after each carriage return (CR). Others 
don't. If you try printing something and everything comes out 
unintentionally double-spaced, make sure the automatic line feed 
switch on your printer is set to OFF. If you still get double spacing, 
the extra line feed is coming from your application. If you can't turn 
it off there, you can use the Delete First LF After CR option to cancel 
the extra line feed. 

38 Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

Add LF After CR 

Suppose you try printing something and you don't get any line 
reeds — the lines are printing on top of each other and all you gel is 
one line of typed smudge. Set the automatic line feed switch on your 
printer to ON or use the Add LF After CR option to add an extra line 
feed after each carriage return. 


When you send a message through your modem, you can elect to 
have the message displayed on your own screen as well as on die 
screen it's being sent lo. This is called echo, and it's a nice way to 
assure yourself that your message is being sent correcdy. In most 
cases, you won't need to select the Echo option because the com- 
puter you're sending the message to will probably send an echo of 
the message lo your screen as a way of confirming that it received 
your message. If you select ihe Echo option and ihe other modem 
sends an echo, you'll be seeing double. 

A full-duplex modem will echo characters back to your monitor. A 
half-duplex modem won't If you're communicating with a full- 
duplex modem, set Echo to No. If you're communicating with a 
half-duplex modem, set Echo to Yes. If you don't know what kind of 
modem is on the other end of the phone line, select Yes. If you find 
everything coming through double, change to No. Most infor- 
mation services, like CompuServe and The Source, use full-duplex 


The buffer is a special holding area in RAM that holds information 
until the computer or peripheral device is ready to deal wilh it. 
Don't change this setting unless the manual that came wilh your 
device tells you to. 

Changing printer/ modem port settings 39 

A baud of 300 Is aboirt one 
double-spaced typed 
page per minute 


The Apple 1IGS can send and receive information at a wide range of 
speeds from 50 bits per second to 19 t 200 bits per second. The im- 
portant thing is that the computer and the printer or modem agree 
in advance on the speed that the bits will be traveling. 

Bits per second (bps) is more commonly referred to as baud, which 
means "rate of transmission." The computer is more adaptable 
about baud than the device, so check what baud the device uses and 
select the same speed for the computer by using the Baud option. 
You'll usually find baud listed on a specifications page in the man- 
ual that came with your printer or modern. The most common baud 
for modems is 1200. The most common baud for printers is 9600. 

Data bits/stop bits 

The computer sends and receives each character of data out the 
serial port as a string of bits. Characters can be represented with 
seven or eight data bits. It doesn't matter which you choose as long 
as there is agreement between the computer and the device it's 
communicating with. The most common data format is eight data 
bits. The manual that came with the device will indicate what setting 
to use. 

Stop bits are used to mark the end of each string of data bits. Some 
devices expect to receive one stop bit-, others expect to receive two. 


Some devices expect to receive a parity bit, which is used by the 
receiving device to make sure the data didn't get garbled during 
transmission. There are three parity options you can select: odd 
parity, even parity, or no parity. Most devices don't use parity 
checking, so if you're unsure about what to select, choose No Parity. 


Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

If the devices agree on odd parity as an error-checking system, the 
sending device adds an extra bit set to either or 1 to make the total 
number of bits add up to an odd number. For example, the 7-bit 
ASCII code for the letter A is 1000001, which adds up to 2, an even 
number. The sending device would add an extra 1 to make il odd. 
'Hie receiving device adds up the bits. If the total is odd, chances 
are the message is OK- if it's even, there was an error in the 

If the devices agree on even parity, the sending device adds an extra 
bit set to either or 1 to make the total number of biLs an even 

Handshake signals 

DCD, DSR/DTR, and XON7XOFF are different protocols that a 
peripheral device can use to tell the computer things like "I'm ready 
when you're ready" or "Give me a second to catch my breath/' 
Signals that regulate the now of data between the computer and a 
peripheral device are called handshake signals. 

Don't change these settings unless the manual that came with your 
device specifically tells you to set them in a particular way. 

DCD stands for Data Carrier Detect; DSR for Data Set Ready, and 
DTR for Data Terminal Ready. XON and XOFF are ASCII charac- 
ters. XOFF tells the transmitting device to halt transmission of 
characters. XON tells the transmitting device to resume trans- 
mission of characters. 

RAM disk 

If you have a memory expansion card connected to your 
Apple IIGS, you can designate a portion of the memory on the card 
to be used as a RAM disk. A RAM disk is memory that is treated like a 
disk. You format it, access it by volume name, and copy or save 
applications and documents on il. The advantage of using a RAM 
disk is that the computer can gel information from it much faster 
than from a disk. The disadvantage is that anything stored on the 
RAM disk is lost when you turn off the power. 

RAM disk 41 

You don't have to designate any of the space on your memory 
expansion card for use as a RAM disk (and there's no reason to with 
newer applications because they will take advantage of the extra 
memory' automatically). But experienced users, using older 
applications, may want to speed up access to applications and 
information by using the RAM disk. This option lets you specify the 
minimum and maximum amount of free RAM you want to set aside 
for use as a RAM disk You change the minimum and maximum 
amount of RAM you want to reserve for use as a RAM disk in incre- 
ments of 32K. The minimum amount can't exceed the maximum 
amount. If you try to raise the minimum above the maximum, the 
maximum will be automatically adjusted. 

RAM disk settings don't take effect until you restart the computer by 
pressing C3-Control-Reset. 

♦ Note: Decreasing the maximum RAM disk size won't erase 
what's already stored on the RAM disk. 

42 Chapter 3: The Control Panel Program 

Chapter 4 

The Mouse Interface 


You con change the respon- 
siveness of the mouse by using 
the Control Panel Program, which 
Is explained in Chapter 3, 


Figure 4-1 


'Hi is chapter defines mouse terms and describes the standard usei 
interface for mouse-based applications. Applications thai use the 
mouse will include detailed instructions for using the mouse in that 
application, but the instructions may assume some familiarity with 
terms like clicking, cutting, pasting, dragging, selecting, and 
choosing from pull-doum menus. If you have questions that aren't 
answered in the manual provided wiih the application, come back 
to this chapter for clarification. 

When you move [he mouse across your desk, a small arrow, called a 
pointer, moves in a corresponding way across the screen, (See 
Figure 4-1.) 


Moving the pointer to something on the screen, and then pressing 
and releasing the mouse button is called clicking. (See Figure 4-2.) 
You click something when you want to select that item for some 

Double clicking means pressing and releasing the mouse button 
twice in rapid succession. It's a shortcut used in many mouse-based 
applications. Where the shortcut leads depends on the application. 
Again, the manual provided with the application will tell you how 
double clicking is used in that application. 

Figure 4-2 



en you point to a word or picture and use the mouse button, you 
-electing that word or picture for some action. 

Selecting is an important concept in mouse-based applications, 
You select something; then you tell the application what action to 
perform on the selected text or picture. For example, you might 
select a block of text and then tell the application to delete it or 
move it somewhere else in the document. 


Chapter 4; The Mouse interface 

To select a block of text, poini just 10 the left of the first character, 
hold down the mouse button, move the pointer to the right of the 
last character, then release the mouse button. The text between the 
first and last character will be highlighted to show that you selected 
it, (See Figure 4*3-) 

[ lolding the mouse button down while you move the pointer is 
called dragging. 

"Hhoy 1 * called Captain tountebank as the ax- boot fre* close to the good ship 

Hi; fierce ooze to* in the blow sails, the mm nous ly wU fe&i the 
flag/nth its bony design " Identify yourself 1 " he amandad. 


tm closer. Captain Mountebank watched it, a from on his rug gedly hondsde 
face His knife- I ike reasoning powers went into action 

Something was rang hers, ft sixth sense, dqmcii in seasonal sea captains, told 
h in tt :*ld not quite : • • t i : he pondered, a 

ccrmonbaM thurdered acre:. »r, punching a rooiy hole in the side of the 

: ' rl "rj:' !"■-' "•: A'".zr- : r as:ed -M situcflian instantly. 

Figure 4-3 

Dragging to select 


Besides dragging across text to select it, you can use the mouse to 
drag objects from one place on the screen to another. You'll do a 
tot of dragging if you decide to use the DeskTop on the Apple HGS 
optional System as your utility application. For example, you'll 
drag a picture of a document to a picture of a trash can to erase the 
document from the disk. Pictures that represent things like 
documents and trash cans are called icons. 



Pull-down menus 

Menus in mouse-based applications slay out of sight until you need 
them. In this respect, they are like those maps you may have had in 
elementary school. The leaeher pulled down the map to teach geo- 
graphy, then rolled it up to demonstrate subtraction on the 

To pull down a menu in a mouse-based application, just point to the 
title of the menu and hold down the mouse button. C'lhe menu will 
remain visible until you release the mouse button.) 

Each word or picture on the menu bar represents a different menu. 
Each application has its own menus, but there is almost always one 
called the File menu. The File menu is the menu you'll use when you 
want to do something to the document as a whole — save il on a disk, 
quit using it, and so on. 

IV Gnu title 
Menu bar 



. if*' 


:■-■ r u : 

i taborl as the dork boa' :-: to the good 

I 3<es ' - i tr« blac+ :"' - : '--; :-n irc-jj I u eitc.y cecl- the 
(esigr. •: '''" he eonnwrwted 

Ther^e Quit iron. IN s nisUr ws«l It ro* tN icwes silently coiing 

e a laser. Lapta n ItountdMn* talched it a frann or Ms nifged 
■ v i - 1 £ kn i f e- 1 1 ke reason i na pomers wen t i r 1 3 ac 1 1 n 

Swathing wos irong rare 1 si tft sense csumxi n =*c=;.r*j 
hm this But he could not qu te put r s : • je yi I ; ; lie ponderec, o 
corironbail thundered across the water, puntf k of the 

Poltroon. Captain four tenant qrcsped the si tffltion instant . 

Figure 4-4 


Chapter 4: The Mouse Interface 


To choose a command from a menu, point to the menu title, hold 
down the mouse button, move the pointer down the list until the 
command you want is highlighted, then release the button. (See 
Figure 4-5.) 


bank as the dark boat d^eui close to the good ship 

!■ in the- bl :.c- .-] i the ominously entity deck, the 

I ber 35 

"frioy " col led 

Poltroon His f 

'he m Ifi ts bony design Identify yourse f " he cawnded 

There was re ortswe i sin star vessel It rode the w-*s i lently icirnrg 

ever closer Captain Nointebonk wlched it 3 fr our. on his siwrthy, scarred, jat 
rugose I y *cid.*jne face His reasoning oarers rent into action, 

Sew thing wis rong here ; ; tr -e^e ::-:■ - -easo'ie-: - - ■: : 

hm this But he could not quite put his finger on it As he pondered a 
camonbai ! '.r.jrderec aces- tre ii'j'.er n^ifi ng a ?'m. he i e -u the side of the 
i son 

Captain hountebank grasped the situation instantly. 


Figure 4-5 

Choosing a command 

Many mouse- based applications let you use a certain key combi- 

ii (like pressing C5-S) instead of choosing a command from a 
pull-down menu. Typing key combinations is Taster lor some 
ex] " rienced users and touch typists, but it's not as intuitive. (You 
have to remember the key combinations instead of finding the 
command jrou want on a menu.) Keyboard equivalents to pull- 
down menu commands arc usually shown on the menu 



The Insertion point Is also called 
a cursor. 


Applications that use text have a blinking symbol, ihat marks the 
insertion point — ihe place where what you lype will be inserted 
(Sec Figure 4-6.) When you start a document, the insertion point is 
usually in the upper-left corner of the screen. As you type, the 
blinking symbol moves to the right, When you reach ihe right 
margin, the insertion point moves to the start of the next line. If you 
are in the middle of a word, when you reach the right margin, the 
whole word moves to the next line automatically. This is called 
word wraparound. 

Fjfui.r, Sserdi Style 

Insertion pomt 


Chapter - ; : 

Rho 4 ' ' called Captain lountebart j= the iar- :: •' f~. : :■;* ".: th good ship 
Poltroon His fierce gaze took in I ii ■■ thettinoi&y. z -'\-'< **>. t-e 

1 1 ag 1 1 th i i- bony des i gn ' ' Identi fy yourse If!" be ccnuonded 

Here js - ; w from the s ;ta Esse It rode the waves silently, coning 
ever closer Captain Mountebank Mich§d it i frwr on ris ^qggdly hirdsoie 
face His knife— I ike reasoning pavers went into action 

Sow thing was irong hers fi sixth smsij ccmon in snsanic -■:.• ::•:•.:• i : 

hn this. But he could not quite pjt his f nger on it. fe he pondered, a 

cannonboll thundered across the nater pushing a roong hole if; the side of the 
Fo Captain Plountebonl" grasped the Ftjat on instontly| 

Figure 4-6 

Insertion point 


Chapter 4: The Mouse Interface 


To insert a word or sentence in the middle of a document, scroll the 
document until you come to the place where you want to insert text, 
move the pointer to the exact place where you want to insert text, 
click the mouse button, and start typing. (See Figure 4-7.) Words 10 
the right of your insertion will move over automatically and wrap 
around to the next line to make room for what you type 

To insert text: 

1. Move pointer to where you 
wont to insert text 

2. Click mouse burton. 

3. Type. 

Insertion point 

I* Edit Format Search Style 


Chapter 31 

"Ahoy 1 * col led Captain Itountebark as the dork boot drew close to the good ship 
Pol trow. His fierce ooze tool-, in the block soi Is, the w'nwsly Mpty decK the 
flag with it; bony design. "Identify yourself!" he commanded 

There was no ansuer from the sinister vessel It rode the moves silently, toting 
euer closer. Captain flwntebank witched it, o from on his swartry, Ruggedly 
handsciie foce His knife-Uke reasoning powers went into action 

Sone thins ms wrong here fi sixth sense, comm in seasoned sea captains, to id 
hii this. E.r hi csuld not qu ti put his linger :<? t hs ■>* zrmti. ' 
camohbaM Irwndered across Ik water, punching o rooay hole in the si fe of the 
Poltroon Cootain founteboii grasped the situation instantly. 

Figure 4-7 

Inserting text 




To delete a character, a word, or a sentence from the middle of a 
document, scroll the document until you see the text you want to 
delete, position the pointer lust to me right of the text you want to 
delete, click Lhe mouse button, and press Delete until the unwanted 
text is deleted. (See Figure 4-8.) 

To delete text: 

1 . Move pointer to right of 
unwanted text. 

2. Click mouse burton, 

3. Press DelGte until text Is 

Insertion point 38 

: "._ :a led Captain nowletor* as the dart tot drew class to thi good ship 
Poltroon Hi.- fierce gaze toe*: ir the black soils, the wincusly empty deck the 
flag with it? hm, design ' Identify jpursel^ 1 " he coMonded 

There na* no v&b ffa the sinister vessel 1 1 ::-: the naves silently, coning 
e er : sser Captain Noyntebar^ watched it, a 'row an his swthg, scarred, yet 
ruggedly handsale face His knjreasofiliig peters sent into action 

ic'etr 'ic ji "rone here H = '' sense :-"nrw n seasoned sea SOptO IIS tl J 
hit this. But lie could not quite pul his I rrger sr it fts he pondered c 
camonooli thundered across toe later, punching a roomy hole in the sice of the 
F: fcraofi Captain Itountebant grasped the situation instantly 

Figure 4-8 

Deleting text 

To delete longer passages, some applications let you drag across 
the text to select it and then press Delete once to delete the whole 


Chapter 4: The Mouse Interface 

Cutting and pasting 

l'o move text from one place to another, move the pointer to the 
beginning or end of the section you want to move, and dr.v 
ihe text to select it Then choose the Cut command from the Edit 
menu. (See Figure 4-9) When you choose Cut, the selected text 
disappears from the screen. 


To cut text: 

1. Drag across text to select It, 

2. Choose Cut from Eoit menu. 


•-. I 


R"ioj ca lee 

r : i'-c-j'i - 1 i 

. ,. .. ., ... _ ; .. 

bank as the dart" boat drew close to the good ship 
li in the bled* soils, the oiinously enpty ded-, the 

■j jour self!' he coMHridetf. 

'--.-■-. :■: ■: mw fro* the : r =ter '« b . rj* he ■:■ e= =i eri'.k coi n 
ever closer Captain Itountebon otcnec ' "> _■ worthy, sccrred, yet 

ruggedly hcmdsotne face His reasoning powrs wit into action. 

Southing «os rang here, ft si t sense Eonan in seasoned sea captains '.: i 

hiTi this But he could not quite put his finger on it fls he pondered, a 
canrwnball foundered across the water, punching a roany hole in the side )i 

Figure 4-9 

Cutting text 



Though it seems to have been deleted, ihc text you cul is actually 
stored on the Clipboard, a special holding area in the memory of 
the computer. To insert the text you just cut, move the pointer to ihc 
place you want to insert it, click the mouse button, and choose Paste 
from the Edit menu. When you choose Paste, the text reappears at 
the new location. (See Figure 4-10.) The Clipboard holds only one 
dipping at a time. If you cul a second block of text without pasting 
the first block of text, the first i u cut is lost. 

To paste text: 

1 . Move pointer to wfiere you 
want to paste text. 

2. Click mouse button. 

3. Choose Paste from Edit menu. 

Insertion point 


Chapter $ 

'Ahoy!' cslled^JT 
Poltroon His 

vk as the dork boat drei close to toe good ship 
ir. fa block pi Is, the onirnously empty dak, the 

flag »ilh its bony design /self 1 " he cowiarcled 

There ws no answer fm the sinister ess* 1 1 rods the naves silently, coiing 
E :■ : oser Copter tto.irt^birk etched it, a from on his siwrthy, scarred, yet 
rugged! i, liandsoibe face. His reasonrng po<i€fs lent into action 

. >■■= R si tn sense, eonon in seasoned sea captains, told 
him this But he could not quit* put his finger on it h he pond&red, o 
amnenbal I thundered across the mater pinching a roomy hole in the side of the 

Figure 4-10 

Pasting text 


To copy a block of text, select it, then choose the Copy command 
from the Edit menu. This puts a copy of ihe selected text in the 
Clipboard, Next, move the pointer to the place you want to insert 
the text, click the mouse button, and choose Paste from the Edit 


Chapter 4: Tne Mouse Interface 

Close box 
Scroll box 

Scroll bar 

Size box 


With mouse-based applications, you look at your document 
through a window. (See Figure 4-11.) With some applications, you 
can have several windows on the screen, This lets you see more than 
one document at a time. 

The contenis of windows vary, but most windows have these things 
in common: a title bar, a close box, a size box, and a scroll bar. 
You can use these tools to change what you sec through a window, 
change the size of a window, move ;i window, close a window, and 
activate a window. 

Title bar i Scroll arrow 

le Edi * Foroot Search Style 


"Ahoy 1 " wiled Captain Mountebank as '.he dart boat dm : 059 to Un good ship 
Poltroon. His fierce gaze tod in the block saiss, the ominously etptg deck, the 
f I og ivi th its bony design " I dent i \ 'he comianded . 

There ws no ansoer froi the sinister vessel It rode the waves silently, caiing 
e^er closer Captain hbuntebaii watched it, o frwn en his swrthy scarred 
n,QQtJ j twndsow fo:e h ■ »ri|re:sor ng pouri iwl r.t: x' :■ 

Southing bos wrong here, ft sixth sense, co : - r « captciris, told 

Mb this But he could not quite put his finger on it fls he pondered, a 
carraifcell thundered o:m: s in the side of the 

iptam NoisiteMi grasped the situot an instantly. 

Figure 4-11 

Parts of a window 




Changing the size of a window 

Most of Lhe lime, you want ihe window you're working in to fill the 
whole screen so you can see as much of the document as possible. 
But sometimes it's useful to shrink the window so you can see more 

than one document at a lime. 

To shrink a window, point to the size box and drag it up and to the 
left. To expand a window, point to the size box and drag it down and 
to the right, 

Moving a window 

To move a window, point anywhere in the tide bar (except on die 
close box), and drag the window wherever you want to put it. 

Activating a window 

Some applications let you have several windows on the screen at 
one time, but only one of those windows can be active. A window 
has to be active before you can make any changes to the informa- 
tion in it. The active window's title bar is highlighted to distinguish it 
from nonactive windows on the screen. 

To activate a nonactive window, use the size box lo shrink die active 
window until you can see die window you want to activate in die 
background. Then click anywhere on the nonactive window and it 
will zoom into the foreground and become the active window. 

54 Chapter 4: The Mouse Interface 

Changing the view through a window 

If a document is too long to fit in the window, there will be a bar 
running along the right side of the window. This is the scroll bar. 
When you drag the scroll box along the scroll bar, different parts of 
the document come into view. The scroll bar represents the total 
length of your document. So t if you want to see the middle of your 
document, drag the scroll box lo the middle of the scroll bar. To 
scroll one line at a time, click the scroll arrow thai points in the 
direction of what you want to sec. To scroll a windowful at a time, 
click within the gray area of the scroll bar above or below the scroll 

If a document is too wide to fit on the screen, there will also be a 
scroll bar along the bottom of the window. Drag the scroll box left 
to see the leftmost side of the document. Drag it right to see the 
rightmost side of the document 

Closing a window 

To close a window, click on the close box in the upper-left corner of 
the window. This has the same effect as choosing the Close com- 
mand from the File menu. 

The Finder 

If you decide the mouse interface is the interface for you, you'll 
probably want to get the Apple FIGS System Disk, which includes the 
Finder. The Finder is both a program selector and a utility 

By starting up with the Finder, you can select the applications and 
documents you want to work on by pointing to icons. Switching to a 
different application or document is as simple as selecting a 
different icon. 

The Finder 55 

Between applications, you can use [he mouse-based Finder utilities. 
To delete a document, you just drag a picture of the document to a 
picture of a trash can. To move a document to a different disk, you 
just drag a picture of the document to the picture of the disk. To put 
a document in a subdirectory, you just drag die picture of the docu- 
ment to the picture of a file folder. To rename a document, sub- 
directory, or disk, you just highlight the icon of the document, 
folder, or disk and type the new name. 

56 Chapter 4: The Mouse Interface 

Appendix A 


This troubleshooting guide concentrates on problems that could 
arise from using Apple ire applications and peripheral devices on 
the Apple IIGS and on problems involving Control Pane! settings. 

Important If the problem Involves a loose connection, turn off the power and 
wait at least 30 seconds before connecting anything to or discon- 
necting anything from the computer. 

*> Diagnostic test: If you think there's a serious problem with your 
computer, you can run a diagnostic test by pressing d and ^ 
while you torn on the power or by pressing Control- c3-# -Reset 
if the power is already on. After about 35 seconds you should 
see the message system Good. If you see the message system Bad 
followed by a string of letters, contact your authorized Apple 

Trouble starting up 




You gel the 
message Check 

Startup Device, 

You forgot to put a 

disk in the startup 
drive, or It's a data disk 
and not an applica- 
tion disk. 

Put a startup disk in 
the startup drive and 
turn on the power. 

tiiii>iRQft ll 7oy-5:>-" 





The computer tries 
to start up by using 
the "wrong" disk 


The computer 
doesn't recognise 
your L'niDisk 35. 

You get (he mes- 

Typing pat and a 
slot number acti- 
vates one of your 
disk drives instead 
the device you 

Unless you've used 
the Control Panel 
Program to change 
Lhe startup slot, the 
computer will attempt 
to start up by using 
the disk in the disk 
drive connected to 
the highest-num- 
bered slot or corre- 
sponding port. A 
5.25-inch disk drive 
in the disk drive port 
corresponds to 
slot 6. A 35-inch disk 
drive in the disk drive 
port corresponds to 
slot 5. 

Your L'niDisk 35 is 
connected to a disk 
drive controller card 
instead of to the disk 
drive port and you're 
using the Fast system 

Fast speed m ight be 
interfering wiih the 

The Control Panel is 
set to Your Card for 
that slot and there's 
no card in the slot. 
When it can't find a 
card, it doesn't know 
what to do. 

Put your startup disk 
in the disk drive that 
lhe computer is using 
as the startup drive or 
change the startup 
slot by using the Con- 
trol Panel Program, 
explained in Chap- 
ter 3. 

nnect your 
UniDisk 3.5 to the 
disk drive port or 
change System Speed 
in the Control Panel 
to Normal. 

Try setting System 
Speed in the Control 
Panel Program to 

If your disk drive 
keeps spinning, press 
Control-Reset to stop 
the disk drive. Change 
the Control Panel 
setting to the port, 
instead of Your Card. 


Appendix A: Troubleshooting 

Trouble using an application 




You can't gel lo 
desk accessories 
by pressing 

The Desk Acces- 
sories menu ap- 
pears imexpecL' 

The application 
works on an 
Apple He but not 
on an Apple llGS, 

Your applicaiion uses 
a version of ProDOS 
earlier ihan 1.2, 
which doesn't give 
you access to desk 

You tried Lo access 
desk accessories ear- 
lier from an applica- 
tion that didn't let 
you, The computer 
held on to your re- 
quest and complied 
as soon as possible. 

Fast speed might be 

interfering with the 

Have your authorized 
Apple dealer upgrade 
the application to 
ProDOS 1.2. 

Choose Quit Trom the 
Desk Accessories 
menu. 3 lave your au- 
thorized Apple dealer 
upgrade the version 
of ProDOS on your 
application disk so 
you can access desk 
accessories when you 
wanl lo. 

Try setting System 
Speed in the (Control 
Panel Program to 

Trouble using the keyboard 




The application 
tells you to press 
Option and there 
is no Option key 
on your kcytxiard. 

The application tells 
you to press ihe 
Apple key and you 
doni know which 
to use. 

On ihe Apple IkJS 
detached keyboard, 
the Solid Apple key 
(#) is labeled 

On the Apple lies 
keyboard, there is 
only one Apple key 


Press Solid Apple (*) 
wherever the appli- 
cation says to press 

Press Open Apple (#) 
■a herever the applica- 
tion says to press 

Trouble using the keyboard 


Trouble using the mouse 




You run out of 
space on your desk 
before ihe mouse 
pointer on ihe 
screen reaches 
your destination. 

The mouse move- 
ments are jerky 

You started your 
mouse move too near 
the edge of your desk 
or loo near the stack 
of books and papers 
in the middle of your 

The ball on the bot- 
tom of the mouse is 
probably grimy. 

Lift the mouse off the 
desk and move it back 
to the center of the 
desk. The pointer 
won't move unl 
put the mouse back 
on the tabic- and 
move it. 

Clean the mouse ball 
according to the di- 
rections that follow. 

Figure A-l 
Mouse belly 

Cleaning the mouse 

1 Turn the mouse over. On its belly you will see a black, plastic 
disc with a hole in its center. The disc has a round mark near its 
edge, which should be pointing lo the letter £ (for locked) 
engraved in the mouse. (See Figure A-l.) 

2. Turn ihe disc counterclockwise one-eighth of a turn, This will 
bring the mark on the disc opposite the letter 0(for open). 

3 Cup your hands around the mouse and turn it right side up. The 
will fall out with the ball. 

4. Wipe the ball clean. If it's greasy, wash it with warm, soapy water 
and dry it thoroughly with a lint-free cloth. 

5. Turn ihe mouse back upside down. If there is any material in the 
hole on its bottom, gently pick it or shake it oul Do not try to 
blow it out. This may just drive the material farther inside. Do 
not attempt to wash out the cavity or use solvents in it, 

6. Place the clean ball back in its hole. 

7. Replace the plastic disc, orienting it so that the mark on its rim 
is near the letter O. Turn it one-eighth of a turn clockwise, 
bringing the mark to the letter /.. This should lock the disc in 


Appendix A: Troubleshooting 

Trouble with the display 



Sol ul Ion 

The image on the 
screen is rolling or 
out of alignment 

Text and back- 
ground colors are 
so similar that ihe 
text is unreadable. 

Little apples and 
check marks ap- 
pear in a line of 
uppercase, inverse 

The Apple tlGS is 
sending signals to the 
monitor according to 
the foreign standard 
(50 hertz) instead of 
the U.S. standard (60 

There isn't enough 
contrast between text 
and background. 

The apples and check 
marks are called 
MouscTcxt, Mouse- 
Text characters re- 
placed a redundant 
set of characters In 
earlier models of the 
Apple II. Older ap- 
plications using that 
redundant character 
set will now display 
MouscTcxt characters 
in place of upper- 
case, inverse text, 

Press d -Control-Reset 
and then press 2. This 
restores the standard 
Control Panel settings 
for ihe U.S., including 
the standard frequency 
of 60 hertz. 

Try adjusting the con- 
trast and brightness 
on your monitor, If 
that doesn't improve 
the contrast, you can 
restore the original 
Control Panel set- 
tings for text and 
background by press- 
ing 4 -Control -Reset 
and then pressing 2- 
If there still isn't enough 
contrast, try setting the 
display type in the Con- 
trol Panel Program to 
Color even if you're 
using a monochrome 
mon itor. 

The MouseText char- 
acters don't affect the 
way an application 
works, so if they don't 
bother you, go ahead 
and use the applica- 
tion. If they do 
bother you, ask your 
authorized Apple 
dealer or the devel- 
oper of the appli- 
cation if there is an 
upgraded version of 
the application. 

Trouble with the display 


"••* loys'VdV-S^" 

i*HN U-a^dUd- r-flT-d 




There isn't enough 
contrast between 
colors on the dis 


The screen is full of 
2's or meaningless 


You can't get a 
color display even 
though you 're- 
using a color mon- 

The application was 
designed for earlier 
models of the 
Apple II. The 
Apple JIgs generates 
slightly different 

The application was 
designed for earlier 
models of the 
Apple II. 

Either the monitor is 
set to monochrome/ 
mode or you're using 
an N J SC color mon- 
itor with a text-based 
application and that's 
the display you're 
supposed to get. Un- 
like analog RGB color 
monitors, iNTSC color 
monitors can't display 
text clearly in color 
mode so they switch 
automatically to mono- 
chrome mode for text- 
based applications. 

Try a different setting 
Tor display type in the 
Conrol Panel Pro- 
gram. The display 
type doesn't have to 
match the kind of 
monitor you have. 

Leave the application 
disk in the drive, 
press d-Conirol-Esc, 
choose Alternate 
Display Mode from 
the Desk Accessories 
menu, and press 
Return, When you're 
finished using the 
application, choose 
the accessory again to 
restore the standard 

Change the switch on 
your monitor to color 
mode if there is one. 
If you're using an 

monitor with a 
text-based applica- 
tion, you don't need 
to make any adjust- 
ments. You'll get a 
color display when 
you use graphics- 


Appendix A: Troubleshooting 





The 40-column 
display changes to 
an 80-column dis- 
play and clears the 
screen when you 
press Control- 

You had the Control 
Panel set to 80 col- 
umns, but the appli- 
cation was using a 40- 
column display. 
Pressing Reset put you 
back in 80 columns 
and cleared the 

It's not really a prob- 
lem unless you pressed 
Reset by mistake. Reset 
is in an unusual loca- 
tion to keep you From 
pressing it accidentally. 

Trouble saving a document 




Your application 
asks for the slot and 
drive or the disk you 
want to save to, but 
your drive is con- 
nected to the disk 
drive port. 

Earlier models of the 
Apple II didn't have 
ports, so slot and 
drive number was a 
logical way to identify 
the location of your 

3- 5-inch disk drives 
connected to the disk 
drive port correspond 
to slot 5. 5. 25* inch 
disk drives connected 
to the disk drive port 
correspond to slot 6. 

Trouble printing 




double or triple 

An extra line feed is 
being inserted by the 
application, the 
Control Panel Pro- 
gram, or the printer. 

Change the appli~ 
cation's line feed 
setting to OFF, or use 
the Control Panel 
Program, explained 
in Chapter 3, 10 
change the line feed 
setting for the printer 
port, or turn off the 
automatic line feed 
switch on the printer. 

Trouble with the display 


'Yioys'voy .>.>-" 




Lines are printing 
on top of each 

No line feed 
instruction is being 
sent to the printer 
after the carriage 
return instruction. 

Vou get a line 
of meaningless 
characters that 
bears no resem- 
blance to your 

You Ye using cither 
the wrong baud, the 
wrong number of data 
bits or stop bits, the 
wrong kind of parity, 
a loose cable, or the 
wrong cable. 

Use the Control Panel 
Program, explained 
in Chapter 3, to 
add a line feed after 
the carriage return for 
the printer port or 
turn on the automatic 
line feed switch on 
the printer. 

First check the tight- 
ness of the cable 
because that's the 
easiest thing to ad- 
just. If that's not the 
problem, check the 
manual that came 
with your printer to 
see how your printer 
expects to receive 
data from the com- 
puter, and then use 
that information to 
answer printer-speci- 
fication questions in 
the application. If 
your application 
doesn't ask for your 
printer's specifica- 
tions, use i he infor- 
mation to reconfigure 
the printer port by 
using the Control 
Panel Program, ex- 
plained in Chapter 3. 
If you're sure your 
printer specifications 
arc right, take your 
cable to your autho- 
rized Apple dealer and 
make sure it's the 
right kind. 


Appendix A: Troubleshooting 




Your printer 
doesn't print, and 
it's the first lime 
you've tried to 
print anything with 
that particular 

The computer is 
sending information 
to the printer in a 
Form the printer can't 
deal with. You're 
using either the wrong 
baud, the wrong 
number of data bits 
or stop bits, or the 
wrong kind of parity. 

Check the manual 
that came with your 
printer to see how 
your printer expects 
to receive data from 
the computer, and 
then use that infor- 
mation to answer 
questions in the ap- 
plication. If your 
application doesn't 
ask for your printer's 
specifications, use 
the information to 
reconfigure the 
printer port by using 
the Control Panel 
Program, explained 
in Chapter 3 

Trouble with the modem 


Every character 
appears twice on 
the screen when 
you're sending a 


Your computer is 
echoing every char- 
acter you send on the 
screen, and the other 
computer is echoing 
every character it 
receives back to your 


Change the Echo set- 
ling to No by using 
the Control Panel 
Program or the com- 
munications appli- 

Trouble with "the modem 





A line of meaning- 
less characters 
appears on ihe 
screen when you 
send or receive 
messages over 
phone lines. 

Characters are lost 
during informa- 

Information senl 
through Ihe 
modem doesn't 
appear on your 

Your communica- 
tions application 
works with a mo- 
dem connected 
to a Super Serial 
Card, but nol with 
a modem con- 
nected to the 
Apple lies mo- 
dem port, CYou've 
already checked to 
be sure the port is 
configured prop- 
erly by using the 
Control Panel 

The computer on the 
other end of the 
phone line is sending 
information to your 
computer in a form 
your computer isn't 
set up to receive. 
You're using either 
incompatible bauds 
or incompatible data 
formats (the wrong 
number of data bits 
or stop bits, or the 
wrong kind of parity). 

There is loo much 
distortion on the 
phone lines to trans- 
mit information at 
the speed you're 

The other compter 
isn't echoing infor- 
mation back to your 
computer. It's a half- 
duplex modem. 

Your communica- 
tions software is 
addressing a partic- 
ular chip on the Super 
Serial Card. 

Check the documen- 
tation furnished by 
the information 
service to see what 
specifications the 
other computer is 
using, and then 
change the way your 
computer is set up to 
exchange informa- 
tion by using your 
application or the 
Control Panel Pro- 

Change to a lower 
baud, if possible, on 
both the sending and 
the receiving end. 

Change the Echo 
selling to Yes by using 
lii' Control Panel 
Program or the com- 
munications appli 

Use a Super Serial 
Card or get a commu- 
nications application 
designed for the 
Apple IIgs. 


Appendix A: Troubleshooting 

Appendix B 

A Technical Introduction 
to the Apple Mgs 

The Apple IIGS is the newest model in the Apple II computer family. 
it is significantly more powerful than any previous Apple II, with a 
fast 16-bit processor and 256K of memory, which you can increase 
by up to 8 megabytes with a memory expansion card, 


It is important to remember thai the Apple IIGS is an Apple II. This 
means that most existing Apple II programs and peripheral de- 
vices, as well as future programs d- I for the Apple He and 
Apple He, will work with the Apple IIGS. 


"C IOYO"fOV:0" XiOW u - o ijuj- ro i 

Apple II programs and peripherals will run on the Apple IIGS 
provided they conform to die operating conventions for die 
Apple II family. Of course, programs or peripheral devices dial 
operate outside those conventions may not run properly on the 
Apple JIGS. Examples of the latter include programs that make use 
of undocumented firmware entry points and peripheral devices thai 
don't use the slot-enable signals (I/O Select and Device Select). The 
reasons will Income apparent when you read about die firmware 
and die expansion slots. 


The 65C816 microprocessor used in die Apple IIGS has an 8-bit 
le in which it can emulate a 6502. Thai is ihc CPU mode die 
Apple IIGS uses when it is running in Apple II simulation mode. In 
Apple II mode, the 65C816 CPU in the Apple IIGS can execute 6502 
code at the standard Apple II clock rate, 1 MHz, or at the faster 
Apple IIGS rate, about 2.8 MHz. 


The first two banks— 128K— of the Apple IIGS's programmable 
memory can be configured the same as the memory in a 128K 
Apple II. 

Moin and auxiliary RAM 

When die Apple IIGS memory is configured for Apple II simulation, 
the memory map is the same as that in an Apple lie or a 128K 
Apple He. The first two 64K banks work like the main and auxiliary' 
banks, complete with language-card spaces, display buffers, and 
the I/O space at hex SC000. 

68 Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple Hgs 

Applesoft in ROM 

Like all other models of ihe Apple II, the Apple II GS has Applesoft 
BASIC in ROM, along with built-in Monitor and I/O routines. Exist- 
ing Applesoft programs will run the same way on the Apple JIGS as 
on a 128K Apple II. 

Text and graphics 

The Apple IIGS has all the standard Apple II text and graphics 
display modes. 

40/80- column text 

Like the Apple He, the Apple IIG5 displays text as either 40 or 80 
columns. On RGB color monitors, ihe Apple IIGS gives the user the 
option of selecting one or sixteen colors for text, another for the 
background, and a third for the border of the display. Like earlier 
models of the Apple II, the Apple IIGS displays text in black and 
white on composite color monitors, but in addition gives the user 
the option of selecting white on black, black on white, or different 
shades of gray on a composite color or monochrome monitor. 

Low, high, and double-high resolution 

'Hie Apple IIGS includes all the Apple II graphics modes, including 
16-color low resolution, 6-color high resolution, and the l6-color 

double-high resolution available on the Apple lie and the 128K 
Apple He. 

I/O and expansion 

The Apple IIGS combines the built-in I/O ports of the Apple lie and 
the expansion slots of the Apple lie. The Control Panel on the 
Apple IIGS gives the user the ability to set each of the seven slots to 
operate either as a built-in port or as an expansion slot for a 
peripheral card. 

Compatibility 69 

Serial I/O ports 

Like the Apple He, the Apple IIGS has two .serial I/O ports for use 
with printers, modems, and other serial I/O devices. The serial 
ports also support the AppleTalk local-area network. 

The Apple IIGS uses an 8530 Serial Communications Controller to 
drive both serial ports. This IC is different from the 6550 ICs used in 
the Apple lie, so applications that deal directly with the I/O hard- 
ware on the Apple lie will not be compatible with the Apple IIGS. 

Disk I/O port 

The built-in disk port on the Apple IIGS can handle both 5.25-inch 
and 3,5-inch disk drives. The disk drives are connected in a daisy 
chain of as many as six drives. There can be up to four 3.5-inch 
drives and two 5.25-inch drives. 

Game port 

Existing hand controllers such as game paddles and sketch pads 
attach via the game port, just as they do on an Apple lie. New con- 
trollers will plug into either the Apple Desktop Bus or the game 


Expansion slots 

Even though the Apple IIGS, like the Apple He, has built-in I/O and 
disk pons, it is like the Apple He in having seven expansion slots. 
The slots are almost identical to the slots in an Apple He and can 
accept most Apple II peripheral cards. (The Inhibit and Sync lines 
work differently; please refer to the Apple lias Hardware 
Reference for more information.) 

The Apple IIGS also has a slot for adding a card with up to 8 mega- 
bytes of fast RAM, along with optional added ROM. Note that the 
Apple IIGS does not have the auxiliary slot found on the Apple He- 
ine auxiliary memory in [he Apple IIGS is built in, like that in the 
Apple Mc. 

Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple Hgs 

New hardware features 

The remainder of this appendix describes the differences between 
the Apple DCS and the current Apple He and Apple lie. This section 
lists the major new hardware features. Note that several features arc 
implemented in firmware as well as ill hardware — for example, the 
Apple Desktop Bus, The firmware aspects of those features are 
described in "New Firmware Features." 

16-bit microprocessor 

The microprocessor in the Apple lies is a 65C816 operating in 
conjunction with the custom FP1 (Fasl Processor Interface) chip. 
The 65C8J6 is a 16-bil CMOS design based on the venerable 6502, 
Table B-l lists its main features. 

Table B-l 

Features of the 65C816 microprocessor 

1 6-bit accumulator 

16-bit X and Y index registers 

Relocatable zero page 

Relocatable stack 

24-bit internal address bus 

8-bil data address bank register 

8-bit program address bank register 

1 1 new addressing modes 

36 new instructions, for a total of 91 (all 256 op codes) 

Fast block-move instructions 

Ability to emulate 6502 and 65C02 8-bit microprocessors 

New hardware features 



In the Apple IIGS, the 65C816 can operate in either of two modes: 
6502 emulation mode and native mode. In emulation mode, the 
accumulator and index registers are effectively 8 bits wide, and 
existing Apple II programs execute just as they do on any other 
Apple II model. In native mode, the 65C816 not only has 1 6-bit 
accumulator and index registers, it also has several new and more 
powerful addressing modes thai take advantage of its 24-bit ad- 

Two clock speeds 

The Apple IIGS uses a clock rale of 2.8 MHz. Allocation of a few 
clock cycles to non-CPU functions reduces the overall operating 
speed to approximately 2,5 MHz. The Apple IIGS can also run the 
65C816 at the normal Apple II clock rate, 1 MHz, 

Memory expansion 

The minimum memory in the Apple IIGS is 2S6K. Apple II pro- 
grams use 128K of thai; parts of the other 128K arc used by the 
system. Programs written for liie Apple IIGS (that is, programs that 
run the 65C816 microprocessor in native mode) can use up to about 

176K of the 256K. 

The Apple IIGS also has a special card slot dedicated to memory 
expansion. All the RAM on a memory card is available For 
Apple IIGS application programs thai call the Memory Manager. 

There are two versions of the memory' expansion card for the 
Apple IIGS, Using presently available 256k RAM chips, a memory 
expansion card can have up to 1 megabyte of additional RAM. 
When 1-megabil RAM chips become available in quantity, a 
memory card can have up to 4 megabytes of RAM. (The Apple IIGS 
will accept up to 8 megabytes of expansion RAM.) The additional 
RAM maps into successive 6-1K banks starting with bank $Q2 r as 
shown in Figure B-l. In addition to expansion RAM, the memory 
expansion card can also have up to 1 megabyte of ROM. 

72 Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple IIgs 

Bonk numbers 

02. .3F 





I/O, and 







Figure B-1 

Memory map 

3.5-inch disks and 5.25-inch disks 

The Apple liGS has a built-in disk port like the one on ihe Apple lie. 
'Hie port uses die lVX'M (Integrated Woz Machine) and can han- 

p to six drives, connected in a daisy chain. The six drives can 
include four 3-5-inch drives and two 5-25-inch drives. 

New hardware features 


'tlO?U ■ " ' 

Apple Desktop Bus 

The Apple Desktop Bus is a simple I/O port with iis own micro- 
processor. Its primary function is to support the delached keyboard 
and mouse of the Apple ITG5. In addition, it provides a convenient 
and inexpensive way to connect additional input devices such as 
hand controls, graphics tablets, and numeric keypads. 

Detached keyboard 

The Apple UGS keyboard (available as an option) is the new Apple 
standard detached keyboard. Without sacrificing any features of the 
Apple lie keyboard, Lhe new keyboard layout includes several en- 
hancements, most notably a numeric keypad. The Apple Desktop 
Bus supports eight different layouts, including the Dvorak or New 
American Standard Keyboard. 


An improved AppleMouse™ interface is built into the Apple I1GS, 
Although the actual hardware is unlike either the Apple He card or 
the Apple He, the calling sequences are the same, as required for 
program compatibility. 

The microprocessor in the Apple Desktop Bus keeps track of all 
mouse movement. Like the AppleMouse card for the Apple He (and 
unlike the mouse interface on the Apple He), Apple Desktop Bus 
operation of the mouse reduces the burden placed on the main 
processor and makes it possible to have a tote passive mode. 

Buifr-in clock 

'Hie Apple UGS has a built-in real-time clock, powered by a long-life 
battery. You set the clock by means of the Control Panel 

74 Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple IIgs 


The Apple 1IGS has all the standard Apple II video modes, en- 
hanced with colored borders and a choice of colors for text and 
background. In addition to all that, the Apple IIGS has built-in RGB 

video and two entirely new graphics modes. 

RGB and NTSC video 

The Apple HGS has both RGB and composite (NTSQ video outputs. 
Either type of display device can be used with the Apple lies, al- 
though an RGB monitor is required for 80-column text in color. The 
Apple lics's composite video signal is designed for optimum per- 
formance with graphics in color or with text in monochrome. 

In high-resolution and double high-resolution graphics modes, the 
appearance of the RGB video display is similar to that of a com- 
posite display. (The RGB video from the Apple IICS is full-analog 
RGB and is not like the RGB display on the AppleColor 100 

Colored text and border 

The standard video modes on the Apple IIGS include two enhance- 
ments: colored text and colored borders. The Apple Tics can dis- 
play 40- or 80-column text in any of 16 colors, with a background of 
any other of the same 16 colors. The Apple IIGS can also set the 
color of the border, that is, the visible part of the display outside 
the area used for text and graphics. 

<• Note.- The composite video output switches to monochrome for 
text modes, making the text, background, and border colors 
appear as black, white, or shades of gray. This feature reduces 
color fringing on text displayed on composite color monitors 
only; the display on an RGB monitor is unaffected. 

New hardware features 75 


Super-high-resolution graphics 

In addition to all the standard video modes found on the Apple He 
and Apple lie, the Apple IIGS also has two new super-high- 
resoIuLion graphics modes. The new modes take advantage of the 
Apple IlGS's analog RGB video output to produce high-quality high- 
resolution color graphics. 

There are two super-high-resolution graphics display modes: 

■ 320 x 200 pixels, 16 colors of 4096 

■ 640 x 200 pixels, 4 colors of 4096 

Unlike the standard high-resolution and double-high-resolulion 
graphics modes, the new super-high-resolution graphics modes do 
not sacrifice resolution in order to get color: each pixel has either a 
2-bit (4-coior mode) or a 4-bit (l6-color mode) value associated 
with it. The pixel values select colors from programmable palettes. 
Each entry in a palette is a 12-bit value specifying one of 4096 
possible colors. 

To funher increase the number of colors available on the display, 
there can be as many as 16 different palettes in use at the same time. 
Each of the 200 horizontal lines of pixels can use any one of the 
palettes, giving as many as 256 different colors at once. Further- 
more, the palette information is easily saved along with the display 
data so thai each picture has its own palettes. 

There is also a graphics fill technique whereby the program can 
cause the display to fill any portion of a horizontal line with a new- 
color, simply by setting marker values on the boundaries of the fill 

76 Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple lies 


The standard Apple II sound output consists of a single bit. Pro- 
grams can produce sounds by switching that bit on and HI. 
Additionally, ihe Apple IIGS has new sound-generating abilities 
from a special- pur pose sound synthesizer 1C made by Ensoniq and 
used in the Mirage™ music synthesizer. In the Apple IIGS, the 
Ensoniq IC operates in conjunction with dedicated RAM chips and 
a custom interface IC, the Sound GLU, The output of the Ensoniq 
chip is from a digkal-to-analog converter that gives the chip the 
ability to control the volume and waveform of ihe sound. 

With appropriate software, the synthesizer chip in the Apple 11GS 
will be capable of synthesizing speech. 

New firmware features 

The Apple IIGS has a total of 128K of built-in firmware. In addition 
to Applesoft BASIC and the standard Apple 11 Monitor and I/O 
features, this built-in firmware supports several major new features. 

Control Pane! 

'Hie Control Panel is a resident utility program. It is always available 
to the user; the user can invoke the Control Panel even while anoth- 
er program is running. The Control Panel enables the user to spe- 
cify the operating parameters for the following functions: 

■ I/O ports: printer or modem, line length, baud, and so on 

■ Display: 40/80 columns, text and border colors 

■ Sound: volume and pitch to use for bell 

■ Operating speed; normal or fast 

■ Slot allocation: internal port or peripheral card 

■ Language: character set for keyboard and display 

■ Time and date: for built-in clock 

■ RAM disk size: how much of memory on memory expansion 
card can be used as a RAM disk 

New firmware features 77 

Enhanced Monitor 

The Monitor provides machine-language access to the registers and 

memory, Among ihe new Features of the Apple IIGS's Monitor are: 

■ Improved display 

■ Long addresses 

■ New commands 

■ Mini assembler 

■ Disassembler 

Improved display 

Memory displays now include both hexadecimal and ASCII values. 

Long addresses 

: Apple IIGS Monitor supports all the features of the new 65C816 
microprocessor, including 1 6-bit registers and 24-bit addre 

New commands 

The Apple IIGS's Monitor has many new commands. Among them 

■ Save and restore registers and mode settings 

■ Search memory for a pattern up to 256 bytes long 

■ Fill part of memory with a 1-byle value 

■ Make a call to the Tool Locator 

■ Store a new value in a specified register 

■ Change the setting of the real-time clock 

■ Convert hexadecimal to decimal or vice versa 

■ Perform 1 6-bit addition and subtraction 

78 Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple IIgs 

Mini-assembler and disassembler 

The Apple lies Monitor includes a mini-assembler and a disassem- 
bler for the 65C816. Doih the miniassembler and ihe disassembler 
can handle all 91 of ihe 65C8l6's instructions and all 24 addressing 
modes (a total of 256 op codes). In addition, the disassembler 
properly expands ProDOS operating-system calls, showing the 
command number and parameter-list pointer separaicly. 

Full interrupt support 

The firmware includes interrupt support for the full range of inter- 
rupts possible on the Apple JIGS, Table B-2 shows the types of 

Table B-2 


Program (Break or COP instruction) 

Peripheral Card IRQ 

Video Vertical Blanking 

Video Scan Line 


AppleTalk Network 

Timer for AppleTalk 


Serial Input on Port 1 

Serial Input on Port 2 

Ensoniq (sound) Chip 

Clock Chip 

Apple Desktop Bus 

External Interrupt from Disk (IWM) Port 

Power Up 

ConLrol Reset 


New firmware features 79 

Apple Desktop Bus 

The Apple Desktop Bus provides a simple communications inter- 
face for trie Apple HGS detached keyboard, mouse, and other 
similar input devices, such as joysticks and graphics tablets. 

The Apple Desktop Bus supports mouse operations in somewhat the 
same way as the AppleMousc card for the Apple He. Il provides a 
true passive mode, enabling the Apple HGS to support the mouse 
while running software routines that cannot be interrupted, such as 
critical timing loops. Like the AppIeMouse card, the Apple Desktop 
Bus also supports interrupt-rnode operation of the mouse, waiting 
until VBL occurs (60 times a second) before interrupting [he system. 


The AppleTalk interface is butli into the Apple HGS, unlike the 
Apple lie and Apple He, which need an optional peripheral devio 
for AppleTalk. Those peripheral devices have dedicated micro- 
processors to handle the AppleTalk communications chip (SCC), 
but the Apple IIGS uses its main processor. The interrupt service 
routine of Lhe Apple IIGS is designed to respond to the SCC in time 
to preclude data overruns. In addition, a hardware timer generates 
a system interrupt four limes a second to enable the AppleTalk 
firmware of lhe Apple IIGS to perform high-level functions. 

New software tools 

One of the biggest differences between the Apple IIGS and earlier 
models of the Apple II is that, like the Macintosh, the Apple HGS 
has built-in software tools that can be used by applications. These 
tools make it easier to develop new applications. 

80 Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple lies 



The Apple IIus tools include 

■ Desk Manager: handles desk accessories, which are small 
shared-memory applications like calculators and calendars. 

■ Memory Manager: controls the use of memory. 

■ Tool Locator; handles communication between applications 
and tools. 

■ QuickDraw II: a set of graphics routines that support the new 

super-high-resolution graphics display. 

■ Event Manager; allows your application to monitor actions in- 
volving the mouse and the keyboard, 

■ SANii NJuroericSi a precise implementation of the [EEE 

Standard (754) arithmetic. 

■ Sound Tools: support for the Apple IIGS sound capabilities. 

■ Miscellaneous Tools: help new applications communicate with 
low- level firmware. 

■ Integer Math: handles multiplication, division, and 
conversion of binary to decimal integers. 

■ Text Tools; help applications display text on the text screen and 
communicate with peripheral cards. 

Reference manuals 

The following manuals are available, or will be soon, from 
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., at selected bookstores 
or through your authorized Apple dealer. 


Technical Introduction to the Apple IIGS 
Programmer's Introduction to the Apple IIGS 

Hardware and firmware 

Apple IIGS Hardware Reference 
Apple IIGS Firmware Reference 

Reference manuals 

Development environment 

Apple I1GS Toolbox Reference: Volume 1 
Apple flGS Toolbox Reference: Volume 2 
Apple I IG s Programmer's Workshop Reference 
Apple FIGS Workshop Assembler Reference 
Apple JIGS Workshop C Reference 
ProDOSS Reference 
Apple UGS ProDOSlG Reference 

Related manuals 

Apple Human Interface Guidelines 

Applesoft BASIC Programmer's Reference 

BASIC Programming With ProDOS 

Programming the 65C8 16 by David Eyes and Ron Lichly, New 

York: Brady Communications (a division of Simon & Schuster") 


The C Programming language by Brian W. Kemigham and 

Dennis M. Ritchie. Englcwood Cliffs, NJ,: Prentice-Hall, 1978. 
Apple He Technical Reference 

'Available from your authorized Apple dealer 

82 Appendix B: A Technical Introduction to the Apple IIgs 

Figure C-l 

Printer and modem port pin-outs 

Appendix C 
Apple IIgs Pin-Outs 

Headphone jack 


Signal description 


Signal de scrip Hon 


Signal ground 
Ear phone 1 


Ear phone 2 

Printer and modem 



Signal description 


Signal description 


Handshake out 


Receive data minus 


Handshake in 


Transmit data plus 


Transmit data 


Goes to DCD input on 




Signal ground 


Receive data plus 

Both serial ports have the same pin-outs. 



"C iovo i o?jj 

Figure C-2 

Gam© port pin-outs 






Signal description 


Signal description 


Switch 1 — ft 


Switch 2 


+5 volts 


Switch 0—3 


Signal ground 


Paddle 1 


Paddle 2 


Paddle 3 



The game I/O signals arc also available on a 1 6-pin DIP socket 
labeled GAM Li I/O on the main circuit board inside the case. (See 
Figure C-6.) 


10 98765432 

l ooooooooo 

V 19 18 »7 16 12 11 

Figure C-3 

Disk drive port pin -outs 

Disk drive port 




Signal description 


Signal description 


Signal ground 


Seek phase 


Signal ground 


Seek phase 1 


Signal ground 


Seek phase 2 


3-5-inch disk 


Seek phase 3 


-12 volCS DC 


Write request 


+5 volts DC 


i tea d .select 


+ 12 volts DC 

1 ' 

Drive 2 enable 


+ 12 volts DC 


Read data 


Enable 2 


Write data 




Appendix C: Apple Hgs Pin-Outs 

O O O Q O I 

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 

o o o o o o o 

A 13 12 11 10 9 

Figure C-4 

RGB video port pin-outs 

RGB video port 


number Signal description 


number Signal description 


2 < 


Signal ground 


Analog BLUR 

Analog RED 


No connection 

Composite sync 


Sound 1 volt peak to 

No connection 


Monochrome video out 

Analog GREEN 


Signal ground (Blue) 

Signal ground 


No connection 

-5 volts DC 


No connection 

+ 12 volts DC 


System ground 

Figure C-5 

Apple Desktop Bus pin-outs 

Apple Desktop Bus 


number Signal description 


number Signal description 



Power (V+) 

Internal speaker 


number Signal description 


number Signal description 

Positive 1 volt 

Signal ground 

Internal; speaker 














Figure C-6 

Internal game connector 


Internal game connector 




Signal description 


Signal description 


+5 volts 


No connection 


Switch 0— (3 


Paddle 1 


Switch 1—4 


Paddle 3 


Switch 2 



: > 

Strobe output 








Paddle 2 




Signal ground 


No connection 

Appendix C; Apple Hgs Pin-Outs 


accelerator cards 8 
ports 33-34 
slots 3, 9, 33-34 
windows 54 
Add LF After CR setting 37, 39 
Alternate Display Mode 21, 62 
American Simplified 

Keyboard (]! 

keyboard) 30 
analog RGB color 

monitor 15, 75 
Apple Desktop Bus 11, 13, 

14, 74, 80 
pin -outs 85 
AppleMouse card 74, 80 
Applesoft BASIC 4, 5, 69 
AppleTalk Personal 

Network 34, 80 
Apple lies System Disk 21, 

applications, trouble- 
shooting 59 
AUX. CONNECTOR slot 3, 8, 

11, 15 
auxiliary RAM 68 

Background option 27 
BASIC See Applesoft BASIC 
baud 40 

Baud setting 37, 40 
bits per second Cbps) 40 
Border option 27 
buffer 39 

Buffering setting 37, 39 
built-in keyboard See 

cables 8 

Caps Lock key 14, 32 

cards See interface cards 

carriage return (CR) 38 


Control Panel Program 
settings 22-23 

modem port settings 35-41 

printer port settings 35-41 

startup disk drive 34-35 

volume 28 

window size 54 

window view 55 
character set 30 


message 13, 57 
choosing commands 47 
circuit board 5, 9 
cleaning mouse 60 
clicking 44 
Clipboard 52 
clock 4, 74 
Clock option 29 
clock speed 72 
close box 53, 55 
Close command 55 
closing windows 55 
color contrast 27 
color monitor 
NTSC 14, 26, 75 
RGB 15,75 
Color option 25 
Columns option 25-26 
commands, choosing 47 
communications programs, 

serial interface cards 

and 12 
compatibility 67-68 
configuring See changing 

connecting peripheral 
devices See portCs}; 
connections, loose 57 
contrast 27 
Control key 32 
Control Panel Program 4, 5, 
18, 25-32, 77 

changing settings of 22-23 

Clock option and 29 

Display option and 25—27 

Main Menu 19-21, 22-24 

port settings and 35-36 

Sound option and 28 

System Speed option 
and 29 
Control-Reset 63 
Copy command 52 
cursor 48 

Cursor Flash option 31 
Cut command 51-52 


data bits 40 

Data Bits/Stop Hits selling 37, 40 

DCD setting 37, 41 

Delete First LF After CR 

selling 37, 38 
Delete key 32. 50 
deleting with mouse 50 
desk accessories 4, 20-21, 59 

ProDOS and 20 
Desk Accessories menu 

20-21, 59, 62 
Desk Accessory Manager 81 
DeskTop 21, 55-56 
detached keyboard See keyboard 


ii miimi Mini minium 

l^BN u 

Device Connected setting 37, 

diagnostic test 57 
digital RGB color monitor 15, 

disassembler 79 
disk drive(s) 
5. 25-inch 3, 13,33,34,73 
startup 3, 13, 34-35 
3.5-inch 3, 13,33,3 
L"niDisk3.5 3,58 
disk drive controller card 3, 

li-k drive pem 11, 13, 33, 70, 
pin-outs 84 
display 75-76 

troubleshooting 61-63 
See also monitor 
Display Language option 30 
Display option 25-2 7 
Columns option and 25-26 
Hertz option and 27 
Screen Colors option 

and 26-27 
Type option and 25 
editing 48-52 
saving, troubleshooting 63 
double clicking 44 
Double Click option 31 

graphics mode 4, 69, 75, 
dragging 45 
DSR/DTR setting 37, 41 
Dual Speed Keys option 32 
Dvorak keyboard (American 
Simplified Keyboard) 30 

Echo setting 37, 39 
editing with mouse 48-52 
Edit menu 51-52 

80-column text mode 4 

emulation mode 68, 72 
error messages 

DEVICE 13, 57 
-i Bad 57 
System Good 57 

unable: to load 

even parity 40, 4 1 

Event Manager 81 
expansion slots See slot(s) 


fan, interface cards and 9 
Fast option 29 
Past Space/Delete option 32 
File menu 46 command and 55 
Firmware 77-80 
5,25-inch disk drive 3. 13, 33. 34, 

40-column text mode 69, 75 
full-duplex modem 39 

game connector (internal) pin- 

ouis 86 
game port II, 13, 70 

pin-ouis 84 
general-purpose ports See modem 

port; printer port 
general- pur po.M See sloi(s) 

i node(s) 
double high -resolution 1, i 

high-resolution 4, 69, 75, 76 
low-resoluLion 4, 60 
super high-resolution I 


half-duplex modem 39 
hand controls 11, 13 
handshake signals 37, 41 
hardware 71-77 
headphone jack 1 1 

pin-outs 83 
Hertz option 27 
highlighting 45 
high-resolution graphii s 

mode 4, 69, 75 
High Speed Mouse option 32 

icons 45, 55—56 
I mage Writer 12, 35 
inserting with mouse 49 
insertion point 48 
Integer Math 81 
interface cards 3, 8-1 1 

fan and 9 
internal game connector 

pin-ouis 86 
internal speaker pin-ouis 85 
interrupt support 79 
I/O port See portCs) 

joysticks 11, 13 

keyboard l-i, 7 -i 

troubleshooting 59 
keyboard buffer 30 
Keyboard Buffering 

option 30 
keyboard equivalents 47 
Keyboard Layout option 30 



■ -■ ' T i «~W 


line Feed (LFO 38 
Line Lenglh setting 3", 38 
loose connections 57 
low-rcsolutton graphics 
mode 4, 69 


main circuit board 5, 9 
Main Menu (Control Panel 

Program) 19-21, 22-24 
main RAM 68 
memory 68-69, 72-73 

Monitor program 
and 78-79 
memory expansion card 11, 

M-35, 4M2, 72-73 
memory expansion slot 5, 11, 

Memory Manager 72-73, 81 
menu bar 46 
menus, pull -down 46 
menu tiUe 46 
microprocessor 4, 5, 68, 

microprocessor speed 3 
mini-assembler 79 
Misc Tools 81 
modem 39 

troubleshooting 65-66 
modern port 5, Il» 12, 70 

AppleTalk Personal 
Network and 34 

changing settings of 35-41 

pin-outs 83 

standard settings for 37 
Modem port setting 38 

monochrome 14 

NTSC 14,26,75 

RGB 15,75 

See also display 
monitor port 11, 14 
Monitor program 78-79 

monochrome monitor 14 
Monochrome option 25 
mouse 11, 14, 44-56, 74 
cleaning 60 
editing with 48-52 
troubleshooting 60 
mouse button 44 
mouse interface card 13 
MouseTexl 61 
moving windows 54 
multifunction cards 8 


native mode 72 
no parity 40 
Norma] option 29 
NTSC composite color 
monitor 14, 26, 75 

odd parity 40, 41 
d-Cotilfol-Esc 20, 59, 62 
Option key 19, 59 

parity 40—41 
Parity setting 37, 40-41 
Paste command 52 
peripheral devices, con- 
necting See port(s); 
pin-outs 83-86 
pointer 44 

port(s) 3, 11-15, 69-70 
activating 33-34 
Control Panel Program 

and 35-36 
disk drive 11, 13,33,70,73, 

game 11, 13,70,84 
modem 5. 11, 12, 34, 35-41, 
70, 83 

monitor 11, 14 

printer 5, 11. 12,34,35-41, 

70, 83 
RGB color monitor 11, 15, 

slots corresponding to 10 
smart 33 
printer port 5, 11, 12, 70 
AppleTalk Personal 
Network and 34 
changing settings of 35-41 
pin -outs 83 
standard settings for 37 
Printer port setting 38 
priming, trouble- 
shooting 63-65 
problems See 

ProDOS, desk accessories 

and 20 
pull-down menus 46 

QuickDraw II 81 

RAM (random-access 

memory) 4, 5, 72-73 

auxiliary 68 

buffer and 39 

keyboard buffer and 30 

main 68 
RAM disk 5, 34-35, 41^2 
random access memory' See 

read-only memory See ROM 
reconfiguring See changing 
registers, Monitor program 

and 78-79 
remote computer 35 
Repeat Delay option 31 
Repeat Speed option 31 
Return key 22 

d© ■• 


RGB card 15 
KGB color monitor 15, 75 
RGB color monitor port 11, 
pin -outs 85 
ROM (read-only memory) 4, 

5, 69, 72-73 
ROM disk 3-1-35 

SANE Numerics 81 
saving documents, 

troubleshooting 63 
scanning 10, 34 
screen See display 
Screen Colors option 26-27 
scroll arrow 53, 55 
scroll bar 53, 55 
scroll box 53, 55 
selecting 44-45 
serial interface cards, 


programs and 12 
serial ports See modem port; 

printer port 
Shift Claps/Lowercase 

option 32 
Shift key 32 
65C816 microprocessor 4, 5, 

68. 71-72 
6502 emulation mode 68, 72 
size box 53, 54 
siol(s) 9-11,69-70 
activating 3, 9, 33-31 
ports corresponding to 10 
startup 10 
slot 3 11 
slot 4 14 

slot 5 33, 34 

slot 6 33. 34 

slot 7 34 

Slots command 33 

smart port 33 

software tools 4, 80—81 

sound 4, 77 

Sound option 28 

Sound Tools 81 

Space bar 32 

speaker (internal) pin-outs 85 

Standard Colors option 27 

starting up, trouble- 
shooting 57-58 

startup disk drive 3, 13 
changing 34-35 

startup slot 10 

stop bits 40 

graphics mode 4, 76 

Super Serial Card, commu- 
nications programs 
and 12 

system Bad message 57 
■i Good message 57 

System Speed option 29 

test, diagnostic 57 

editing 48-52 

saving, troubleshooting 63 
text mode 

80 -column 4, 69,75 

40-column 69, 75 
Text option 27 
Text Tools 81 
3. 5-inch disk drive 3, 13, 33, 

title bar 53, 54 
Tool Locator 81 
lools 4, 80-81 
troubleshooting 57-66 

applications 59 

display 61--63 

keyboard 59 

modem 65-66 

mouse 60 

printing 63-65 

5av ing documents 63 

starting up 57-58 
! j pe option 25 



message 58 
UniDisk 3-5 3, 58 
Unlimited line length 

setting 38 

volume, changing 28 


windows 53-55 
word wraparound 48 

XON/XOFF setting 37, 41 

Your Card message 33 

Z80 cards 8 



Apple Computer, Inc. 

20525 M.iriani Avenue 
no, California 95014 

luu/ w« Printed in Sinjppurc